Aberra family are descendants of the Representative of Khatmiyyah Order – a Sufi Order in Sudan, Kassala (Joe Venosa, 2013) in the highland of Eritrea. Aberra Hagos became the main mercenary of Italians in the highland. He became one of the most influential people in the highland of Eritrea, especially in Asmara throughout the Italian occupation, the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, etc.
His politics was complex and multi-dimensional. He was a nationalist, Islamist, Unionist, Sectarian, etc. Now, his grandchildren follow almost the same political style of their great-grandfather.
Like all Eritreans, most of the Aberra family now live in exile.
The politics of Jebertism is still controversial. It is mixed in politics, religion, identity, and social values. The search for Jeberti Identity is not complete. Even though the notion “Jeberti” has its roots in Somalia, around Zeila, Somaliland, the Aberra Family, and most other Jeberti community claim to be Eritrean indigenous people.
Dr. Mustafa Lysedie, recently wrote a book under a title, “who are Eritrean Jebertis?”. Dr. Mustafa noted that most of the Jeberti communities are of Beja origin and original habitats of Seraye region of the highland(now within the Southern Province of Eritrea). He added in his book that the Jeberti people were displaced from their original land by the Agows who migrated from Lasta, Ethiopia simply because they were Muslims.
Dr. Mustafa Lysedie’s claim is controversial. But, it has a serious political complexity that is merged within the struggle of the Jeberti community to be known as a separate ethnic group.
More than 80% Eritreans are believed to be descendants of Agow people. These families are scattered throughout Eritrea. Originally, Eritrea was the land of the Nilotic people. Then with the emergence of Kushitic civilization, a Kushitic culture and language dominated Eritrea. With the fall of the Kushitic civilization, Semitic culture started to emerge as a leading culture. Today, Eritrea is a product of Nilotic, Kushitic and Semitic civilizations. The people are of the same origin but exposed to different civilizations.
Since the 4thC, Christianity and then after the 7thC Islam changed many aspects of Eritrean identity. However, many Eritrean families have retained their kinship identity. This makes it easy to understand the social and anthropological make-up of the people. For this reason, it is hard to take Dr. Mustafa’s claim of the land-grabbing claim.
Islam has a long history in Eritrea. But, the rapid expansion of Islam took in the 19thC right after the fall of the Ottoman empire and expansion of European colonization. Many Arab missionaries crossed the Red Sea to preach Islam. Some prominent Islam preachers penetrated Eritrea. Families like al-Mirghani established their center in Kessela by establishing Khatmiyyah Order. This center became the new and strong base to spread Islam in Eritrea.
The father of Aberra family, Aberra Hagos, became a member of the Khatmiyyah brotherhood and became an instrument of spreading Islam in the highland of Eritrea. In addition, there was another Sufi Sheikh who established his base in Seraye. This Sheikh named Ahmed Kenani/Tijani is believed to come from Mauritania(West African country) through the network of Sufi Tariqah. His tomb is found in Abi-Adi Seraye. It is considered as a holy place by Jeberti community. Annual Pilgrimage is still continuing to honor him.
In all these activities, Aberra family play a central role. Even though Aberra Hagos lived in the 20thC, the family history can extend as early as the 19thC to see the overall picture of their contribution. Today, this family has the fourth-generation leaders of the Jeberti community working actively to promote Jeberti values and identity in Eritrea.
If you are interested in Sufism and Sufi Orders n Eritrea, please read these two articles
As an Eritrean Liberal democrat, this family is an interesting family for the objective of understanding Eritrean politics, both religious and ethnic based politics. Here is below my expanded perspective.
Are Muslim Eritreans and/or Eritrean Muslims at war against Tigray people?
On December 12, 2018 I wrote an article under a title “What is expected from the Brussels Conference?” in regard to a conference held from 13/12 to 14/12/2018 organized by concerned international organizations to discuss about the current situation of Eritrea and convey their findings to the EU Commission so that EU can have a broader understanding of the current and most pressing situation about Eritrea.
In my article, I criticized the organizers of this conference for being non trasparent about the their programs. Nevertheless, I wished them a good luck for its success. I was not one of the participant. But, I visited there to see how successful was their conference and to discuss with the participants which I actually did.
I entered the conference room freely and got an opportunity to observe the last minutes of writings their declaration. What I observed was very encouraging. The environment was friendly, open and serious about every words uttered. I did a short report about my observation (please follow the facebook video below). And, the declaration is provided below the video.
In general, I can say that based on my short time observation, discussions I did and after reading the declaration, it is easy for me to conclude the conference was successful.
This declaration was extracted from Martin Plaut’s page. Please follow the origin publication by clicking here.
Declaration: Call to stop Human Trafficking in Eritrea, Sudan and Libya and ensure that the migrants in Europe and Israel are properly welcomed
“We the People: Peace in the Horn & the Safety and Future of the Eritrean People.”
Brussels Conference, 12-14 December, 2018
The conference “We the People, Peace in the Horn & the Safety and Future of the Eritrean People” was held with over 200 representatives and members of the Eritrean diaspora, delegations from Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Canada, the United States, Italy, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland and the representatives of the 25,500 Eritrean asylum-seekers in Israel who were not allowed to travel due to lack of legal status. The situation of the Eritrean people following the peace process in the Horn was considered. The conference coincided with the EU Summit which discussed a multi-annual financial package for migration.
Hearing new witness evidence, the conference welcomed the peace process in the Horn, but expressed grave concern that the Eritrean people continue to suffer under the desperate and slave-like conditions during indefinite national service, arbitrary detentions and that political prisoners and prisoners of conscience are still held in incommunicado detention.
The conference heard first-hand witness reports of the situation in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Libya, the wider African continent, Israel and Europe. The conference heard of the increased influx of Eritrean refugees into Ethiopia, and for many the onward movement to other countries while in the hands of human traffickers.
The conference considered the evidence of the involvement of Eritrean officials in the human trafficking of its people and the protection of those involved in human trafficking of the Eritrean people. The conference welcomed the UN and EU sanctions adopted in June 2018 on those responsible for the criminal organisation and harbouring of human trafficking including Eritrean authorities who are implicated in these abuses. Based on the evidence heard the conference:
The conference calls on the African Union, the European Union, Israel and the international community to:
We pledge to strengthen our networks and continue dialogue and make a positive contribution to the Improvement of the situation in Eritrea. We call on the EU, AU and international community to support our objective in promoting dialogue.
For more please follow:
Conference declaration: EU must end support for the Eritrean dictatorship
Bizarre Diplomatic Relationship
Whenever one mentions South Africa, “the Apartheid system” and “Nelson Mandela” are a universal flash to everyone. The first being a racial taboo imposed by the whites and the later a man who fought to end the system.
These two extremes converged at one once the Apartheid system was abolished and Mandela triumphed after his long quest to complete South African emancipation. Since then, South Africa became the hub of tolerance and human dignity.
I am not here today to talk about South Africa or the system that had ruined the rights of SOuth Africans but about silent and wierd relationship a South African Diplomat and a Communist Party of South Africa have with one of the extremely totalitarian regime in Africa, the PFDJ Regime of Eritrea.
South Africa opened its embassy in Eritrea in the year of 2004. Prior to that, there was no noticeable diplomatic relationships and I rarely read news about South Africa in the Eritrean news outlets.
However, with the assignment of new ambassador(2012), South Africa started to surface on major political, cultural and business news activities via Eritrean and some South African news outlets. But I was not aware who was behind these new movements until I came to know an Ambassador named Iqbal Jhazbhay.
The first time Ambassador Iqbal Jhazbhay came to my attention was when he participated in Bologna Festival held in July 2014 by PFDJ on the occassion of 40th anniversary of one of EPLF’s historical festival during the armed struggle. He was the only foreign diplomat who participated in the festival and delivered a speech.
Another event that forced me to pay a closer look was on October 30, 2014, when Asmara hosted first of its kind festival organized in collaboration with the office of the South African Embassy and PFDJ regime. The festival which is held on the occasion to mark 10th anniversary of Eritrean-South African ties is nothing but a political exhaustion. According to the report, Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay explained to the participants the festival will enhance the political, economic, cultural, as well as diplomatic relations between the two countries.
Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay : Who is he?
Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay was a South African Ambassador to Eritrea from 2012 to 2016. As an Ambassador, he had a mission to accomplish in line to the interest of South Africa in Eritrea. However, his diplomatic mission had a nature of secretive and unusual merge between business and political interests.
Inspite of some public funfares and mass media appearances, neither the people nor the country represented had any transparent and known diplomatic relationships. From what I tried to follow, it wast purely business oriented, exploitative and camouflaged friendship that aimed at extracting the natural resources of Eritrea via PFDJ and South African mining companies and active duties in the political affairs of Eritrea including in the participation of diaspora festivals and meetings organized by PFDJ. In addition, Professor Iqbal’s appeared to have a strong interest in the geo-politics of the horn of Africa, especially Somalia.
In many occasions, he appeared to represent Eritrea in diplomatic missions. Usually accompanied by Ambassador Tesfamichale Gerahtu, there could be some link between these diplomats that dates back to early 2000.
But, who is Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay and why he accompanied PFDJ officials in some important foreign meetings? Why Ambassador Tesfamichael Gerahtu had strong relationship with him?
Ambassador Tesfamichael Gerahtu’s relationship between these two ambassadors rooted back to early 2000s when the Eritrean Ambassador known for his antagonistic approach was there to dismantle the Eritrean student movement in South Africa? According to the news report, an official diplomatic relationship was launched in 2004, three years after the university student movements.
To look into the bibliography of Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay, in his linkdin profile, the following information is written.
“Iqbal Jhazbhay is South Africa’s Ambassador to the State of Eritrea. Formerly Professor at the University of South Africa and the previous Director of the Unisa Centre for Arabic and Islamic Studies. He holds a PhD in International Relations from the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa and, studied Arabic and Islamic sciences in Cairo, Riyadh, Manchester and Johannesburg.
His research interests include Islam in Somaliland and Somalia, South African Islam, Sufism, Political Islam, South African foreign policy towards North Africa and the Middle East, international relations and Islam.
He was a visiting scholar at Princeton University’s Department of Near Eastern Studies and London University’s School of Oriental and African Studies.
He has authored the book, ”Somaliland: An African struggle for nationhood and international recognition”, some twenty-two academic articles and chapters on Islamic thought, Somaliland and South African foreign policy.
He is a member of the board of directors of the Institute for Global Dialogue –an International Relations think-tank established by former President Nelson Mandela. Serves on the ANC’s NEC Sub-Committee of International Relations, its newly-formed International Relations Rapid Response Task Team and chaired the ANC’s Sudan Task Team. He previously served on the ANC’s Commission for Religious Affairs. He was elected as Rapporteur of the ANC’s International Solidarity Conference (2012).”
Well, here we get some traces of this good Ambassador to be a good fortune for PFDJ cover-up. The professor known for his academic studies related with Somalia and PFDJ’s link and involvement in the Somalia’s affairs, no one can be worth enough to be a firsthand good friend for an evil diplomatic relationships.
Of course, there are some South African companies which are operating in mining activities. And from far, the diplomatic relationships can be somehow bizarre to an observer from far and can be taken for granted. But the truth might be different especially by looking into the biography of the Ambassador and the ruling Junta. Ambassador Tesfamichael is good in this kind of diplomatic friendships and indeed his mission to South Africa is still on ground.
In an interview done with Somaliland Times on January 16, 2004, the website has also recorded Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay’s background as, “A director of Johannesburg-based Institute of Global Dialogue and is also convener of the Middle East study group at the South African Institute of International Affairs.” This shows that the professor’s presence in Eritrea is beyond his official diplomatic mission.
Eritrea has a sanction imposed by UN in relation to its link with Al-Shabab and other forces that override the peace of the horn of Africa. I do not have any information whether South Africa involves in Somalia or in other horn African countries, but the presence of this ambassador in Eritrea is something that has to be investigated further.
What the Communist Party of South Africa is doing in Eritrea?
I thought South Africa is a liberal democratic country with political parties who favor human rights. After experiencing a system of extreme racial discrimination, it is hard to imagine anyone from South Africa ignores what a dictatorial state is. Unfortunately, one of the oldest political party from South Africa is seeking alliance with one of the most brutal regime Africa has ever faced after the end of cold war.
Communist Party of South Africa was founded in 1921. For its role in the struggle against aparthaid, it was banned as a legal political party in South Africa but has played a role in the termination of Aparthaid system by allying itself with other political forces, called the Triparthite Allaince. Nevertheless, it managed to strive throughout the Aparthaid period and some of its leading members were part of the post-aparthaid government. And the party was abandoning its socialism concept and came to conclude that that Stalinism had failed. As a party it continued to exist by sharing power with African National Congress and Congress of South African Trade Unions.
Though its political influence is insignificant, the intention to expand its alliance with the Eritrean totalitarian regimes is a sign of the revival of its old political ideology. Such kind of alliance unique and it deserves full scrunity. The visit was accompanied by Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay and three other SACP members.
With the coming of Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay there was a semi-transparent relationship between SACP and its alliance with the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice(PFDJ) as it was highlighted above. What makes this relationship unique is that eventhough Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay was an ambassador who represented South Africa, what he did and still continuing to do is too strengthen the relationship at a party level.
It might seem a conspiracy theory but with the on-going geopolitical development of the horn of Africa in general and Somalia in particular, SACP and PFDJ could have a share in the affairs of Somalia. But this may seem to far. Of course, with the declining power of PFDJ, to get such kind of party to party relationship has an advantage, especially to PFDJ. As a consequence, it might have an impact on the political landscape of Eritrea. Not only this, it may also strength PFDJ’s dirty role in Ethiopian internal politics via the Somali region and in the making of Somaliland.
Observing this kind of diplomatic relationship, as an Eritrean, Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay and SACP’s alliance I can imagine its awful impact. I am saying this based on South Africa experience during the high time of oppression. Any party or organization that moves to create alliance with PFDJ can be considered either as unconsciousness about Eritrea situation or does not care about the human rights situation of citizens. And when such move comes from South African political party, it gives an alert how fast history can be forgotten.
Of course Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay will continue his dirty business, both in Eritrea and in Somalia. But, as a people and those who are fighting for our rights to be respected, any kind of alliance with the oppressor leverages to suspend our suffering. On this occasion, I call Professor Iqbal Jhazbhay and South Africa Communist Party to distance from PFDJ. Otherwise, it is against what South Africans, including SACP, fought for and against humanity. Therefore, I call them to refrain. Not only to refrain, but to help Eritrean people to fight against injustice that has been continuing since 1991.
30 መዓልቲ ምስ 30 ዓንቀጻት ኣድማሳዊ ኣዋጅ ሰብኣዊ መሰላት ወዲ ሰብ። ሓደ መዓልቲ ንሓንቲ ዓንቀጽድምጺ ኤርትራዊ ሊበራል ዲሞክራት
መዓልቲ፥ 0ክፋል 1፥ መእተዊ
30 Days with 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. One Day for every single Article.Voice of an Eritrean Liberal Democrat.
2018 is an extremely busy year for Eritreans. The situation in Eritrea is changed from “no war – no peace” to “no peace” situation. What is not changed is the strategy that has been used by the opposition forces who are fighting against the dictatorial regime.
After Ethiopia ended its war with Eritrea through its public declaration, Eritreans continued to live under the same brutal system of administration. No change has been done so far. More than that the peace agreement signed between Eritrea and Ethiopia is not made public, be it from Eritrean or Ethiopian side.
In reaction to the secret agreement between the PFDJ Regime and EPRDF government of Ethiopia, thousands of Eritreans went to Geneva(31/08/2018) to denounce the secret deal and called Ethiopia to respect Eritrean sovereignty. The day after, on 01/09/2018, a meeting was conducted in Geneva that brought about 250 Eritreans together in order to discuss how they can better be organized in order to mobilize Eritreans and fight against injustice and stand for Eritrean sovereignty.
The meeting in Geneva was solely conducted by Eritreans themselves. No outsider was involved in any form. Individuals from different countries collaborated independently to call for a mass demonstration and attend a meeting that was meant to discuss Eritrean developments. About 13,000 Euros was raised through online campaigns to cover expenses.
The demonstration conducted on 31/08/2018 was successful. It attracted thousands of Eritreans from different countries. The meetings that were conveyed the day after was a success despite some challenges that came from an organized sectarian and fanatic group who demanded the use of Arabic language and some other demands that that were orchestrated to destruct from the main agenda of the meetings. At the end of the meeting, a seven-member committee was elected democratically to act as a person-reference in their respective countries.
The seven-member committee took a six months mandate to mobilize and organize Eritreans who live in their respective countries. So far, 100 days have already passed. I believe the committee is actively working on its mission.
About 450 Eritreans are gathering in Brussels on December 13 & 14, 2018 to conduct a workshop among Eritreans who are fighting against the dictatorial regime in Asmara. No detail is made public about the conference except some information that was circulating by individuals through their Facebook postings. Individuals were invited to attend the meetings through private e-mail messages. I was one of those who received the email though no detail was provided about the event.
I preferred to decline the invitation simply because I received no details. I have read no formal information in any news outlet. In order to provoke some news, I tried to make people to be aware about the event through my facebook post published on 26/11/2018.
I received no positive feedback. I made my mind that there was no any other information made public. It was just a general call that was circulating via facebook.
I believe that this kind of information is not sufficient for anyone who has a genuine concern about Eritrean cause. Unless people discuss prior to their meetings openly and publically, whatever or whoever is in the meeting, it will end up without any tangible fruit. The people who attend the workshop will have no power to influence the outcome although their inputs could be incorporated in the reports that are meant mainly for the organizers.
Europe External Policy Advisors(EEPA) and Brussels Workshop
Europe External Policy Advisors is a group formed by European academicians who work as experts in different matters that concern Europe. One of these members,
Miriam Van Riesen is active in Eritrean matters. Miriam Van Riesen works with many Eritrean activists who expose the atrocities of the totalitarian regime in Asmara and human rights defenders who are working to protect Eritreans from danger.
Unlike the Geneva meetings, Brussels workshop is organized by a foreign organization. It is not made public what is the interest of Europe to organize such meetings. Neither EEPA nor any other body has so far published any information about this workshop. I am not sure if there will be any formal publications that may come after too.
Eritreans who were expecting some news about Geneva meetings got nothing. They kept silent.
I hope EEPA or any other organization(or individual) will have the courage to make information available about the Brussels conference. Otherwise, it will be a service to European academicians than being an effort to solve propblems of the people of Eritrea who are living in misery.
These days, the are a number of stressing issues that concern Eritreans most. Human rights, sovereignty issue(border demarcation), removing the dictator, Eritreans in Libya, secret agreements between Eritrea and Ethiopia, Eritreans in Europe who are left without protection and some who are waiting forced deportation, etc, are some of the key topics that need urgent discussions. I hope Brussels will discuss these issues seriously and present their resolutions/statements/recommendations to the wider public.
ብዕለት 08/12/2018 ብኣጋጣሚ ምኽንያት ሰፊሕ ሰላማዊ ሰልፊ ኢትዮጵያውያን ተቐማጦ መቐለ(ክልል ትግራይ) ንዝኽርን ልዕሊና ሕጊ ፈደራላዊ መንግስቲ ኢትዮጵያ ዘተኮረ ሓሳባዊ ምኽሪ ንህዝቢ ትግራይን መራሕቲ ክልል ትግራይን ዘተኮረ ኣቅራቦት ከም ኤርትራዊ ሊበራል ዴሞክራት ኣብቲ ዝወዓለ ሰለማዊ ሰልፍን ዘለኒ ኣመለኻኽትና ክገልጽ ፈቲነ።።
እዚ ሰለማዊ ሰልፊ ዝተኻየደሉ እዋን ኣብ ኢትዮጵያ ኣንጸላልዩ ዝርከብ ሓደገኛ ዝመስል ፖለቲላዊ ምዕባለታት ንህዝቢ ትግራይ ኣዝዩ ጸላዊ ስለዝኾነ ከም ኤርትራዊ ሊበራላዊ ዴሞክራት መጠን ንህዝቢ ትግራይ ይጠቕሙ እዮም ዝበልክዎም ሓሳባት ብመልክዕ ሰሚናር ብመንገዲ facebook ኣቕሪበ። ነዚ ድማ እንሆ ኣብዚ ጠቢቑ ዝርከብ ትሕዝቶ ክትከታተሉ ብኽብሪ ይዕድም።
70 Years have passed since the declaration of the Universal Human Rights. It is one of the most remarkable achievement in human history to come out with a universal human rights that are meant a fair justice for human being on this earth.
Since then, the world has shown progress towards peace, development and freedom. As a refugee and as a human being, nothing is worthy than knowing my rights. To do so, I am in a constant search to achieve higher freedom.
I came from a country where systematic and widespread crimes against humanity has been committed since 1991 by a brutal regime which is ruling the country by force. I had no opportunity to know what human rights are although I knew that as a human I deserve humanily treatment. When, I left Etitrea, the first country I lived was in China. I encountered a relatively different world where humans are busy with their daily affairs. One year life in China was like a heaven compared to what I have gone through in Eritrea.
The time I realized there is another freedom was when I landed to France(2013). I faced a different world where every human is free to be who he/she is. It is since then that I started to look into human rights. After almost three years of search into world ideologies that promote best for human freedom and dignity, I shaped my mind to be a liberal democrat.
As a liberal democrat, my primary mission is to make sure that the rights of every human being is respected. And on this date(10/12/2018), it is a unique and first day for me to commemorate 70 years anniversary with my friends in facebook.
In fact, my commemoration is not one day celebration. It is almost one year celebration project. Realizing this 70 years anniversary is coming, in December 2017, I decided to spend anytime one day for each article from the universal declaration of human rights for the next whole year in order to contemplate more on human rights and share it it with my Eritrean friends. So far, I have covered 16 Articles, each day I was picking one Article at a time and spend at least one hour presentation. So far, it is a successful project. At least more than 100,000(total) people have watched my videos.
And, on this particular date, I have dedicated another 4 extra days to contemplate further about the declaration through reading and elaboration.
For more please follow the facebook presentations embeded below.
Part I (07/12/2018)
Part III(1) (09/12/2018)
Part III(2) (09/12/2018)
እዚ ብዕለት 09/12/2018 ብlive facebook ዘመሓላለፍክዎ ኣስተምህሮ “እቲ ዘይተዛዘመ ኲናት:ሃይማኖታዊ ኲናት ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ” the unfinished war in the horn of Africa ኣብ ትሕቲ ዝብል ኮይኑ ንጥንታዊት ከተማ ኣክሱም ዝቐንዐ ሃይማኖታዊ ኲናት እቲ ገና ዘይተዛዘመ ኲናት ብምዃኑ ንሕና ኤርትራውያን ካብዚ ንልዕሊ 1400 ዓመታት ዝቐጸለ ኲናት ብኸመይ ንገላገል ኣብ ትሕቲ ዝብል ክልሰ-ሓሳብ ንኤርትራውያን ዝቐንዐ ጻውዒት እዩ።
The system of the world we live in today is the product of the past. And, to understand the world we live in, it is better to understand what was happening in the past. In fact, it is like a continuous process.
The Process is like any system process that produces a product. If there is any defect in the the final product, then it needs a detailed investigation in order to understand the whole process.
I think it is not an easy task to understand the whole world processes that have given us today’s world. However, if some key strategies of investigation are followed, the success of figuring out key historical indicators might not be difficult. Once these key elements are identified then it can not be problematic to find alternative deductions to ameliorate the next product or to know any product is the sum total of all elements within the process.
Today is the day to live in and prepare for the future. It is not possible to change today though we can use it for changing tomorrow. In short, the power vested on us today is to plan for our future. And, to plan the future, the past must be understood.
It is within the above contemplation that I tried to revisit the past in order to understand what is today. Of course, I have seen many key historical discourses that shaped the world for the last 2000 years. These discourses have an immense effect in our today’s life, and most probably in the future.
21thC is different. The actors that are controlling our discourses are quite different than the past. This has changed when religion is in the course of having less effect on world matters and decision taking. But this does not mean that religion and religious institutions will not have its share. In fact, it will continue to be the check-and-balance scale to humanity and justice.
The last 2000 years, the world of God’s kingdom(The people of the Book) was full of chaos and crisis. At the center of this chaos, the Christendom (Christian World) played an important historical role.
The Christian world faced a serious challenge when an Islamic world was created some six centuries later. Despite the challenge it faced, the Christendom was evolving from time to time to face theological challenges within itself and to face threats from other worlds.
For this, the Christendom had several Councils (in total 21 Councils over a time span of 1900 years) formed in the different time period to shape their own future in the world stage. The decisions of the Council meetings was affecting the whole Christendom world.
The horn of Africa is on the typical regions which were affected by these Council meetings. To make it short, I have just outlined the major Councils. With time, I will try to outline the major impacts each of these Councils had in the horn of Africa.
a. Antiquity (50 – 451 AD)
b. Early Middle Ages(553 – 870)
c. High and Late Middle Ages (1122 – 1517)
d. Modernity (1545 – 1965)
መግዛእቲ ኤውሮጳ ንኣህጉር ኣፍሪቃ ከም ሓይልኻ ዘይኮነስ ብስርዓትን ኣዋጃትን እተን በቲ ግዜ ሓያላት ዝነበራ ሃገራት ከም በዓል ዓዲ-እንግሊዝ፣ ፈረንሳ፣ ጀርመን፣ ፖርቱጋል፣ በልጁም ካልኦትን ዝኣመሰላ ብዕልን ውጡንን መንገዲ ዝተኸኣተ መስርሕ እዩ።
ምስ ማእከላይን ርሑቕ ምብራቕ ሃገራትን ኣፍሪቃን ንዝግበር ንግዳዊ ንጥፈታት በቲ ኢንዱስትርያዊ ሰውራ ዝተተባብዐ ስርዓተ መጉዓዝያ ባሕሪ ዝሓጸረ መንገዲ የድሊ ስለዝነበረ ማእከላይ ባሕሪ ምስ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ዘራኽብ መትረብ(Canal) ክስራሕ ተወጠነ።
ነዚ ንምትግባር ድማ ዓዲ እንግሊዝ ከም ወናኒት ክትከውን ከላ ኩባንያ ፈረንሳ ድማ ነቲ ስራሕ ኣካይዳቶ። እቲ ፕሮጀክት ምስ ተጀመረ ኣብ ገማግም ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ዝርከባ ሃገራት ንምቁጽጻርን ስትራተጂካዊ ቦታ ንምሓዝን ኣብ ፈቐድኡ ወሽመጣት መሬት ንምዕዳግ ተጓየዩ።
ነዚ ንምትግባር ድማ’ዩ ሓደ ኢጣልያዊ ካቶሊካዊ ካህን ኣባል ማሕበር ላዛሪስት (ፈረንሳ) ብቀሺ ጁሰፐ ሳፐቶ ዝፍለጥ ኣብ ዓሰብ ብ1837 ንእሽቶ መሬት ካብ ሱልጣን ረሓይታ ዓደገ። ቀሺ ጁሰፐ ሳፔቶ ብኣቐዲሙ ኣብ ግብጽን ሊባኖስን የገልግል ስለዝነበረ ምልከት ቋንቋ ዕረብ ስለዝነበሮ ኣብ ዲፕሎማስያዊ መዳይ ጸገም ኣይነበሮን።
ክሳብ ውሽጢ ኢትዮጵያ ብምንቅስቓስን መሬት ቦጎስ፣ መንሳዕን ሓባብን ብምብጻሕ’ውን ብዛዕባ መሬት ኤርትራ እኩል ሓበሬታ ኣኪቡ እዪ።
ኣብ 1869 መትረብ ስዊዝ ምስ ተኸፍተ ድማ ኢታልያውያን ምስ እንግሊዝ ብምትሕብባር ንወደብ ዓሰብ ንምቁጽጻርን ተወሳኺ’ውን ድሕሪ ስዕረት ግብጻውያን ዝተፈጥረ ዕድል ተጠቒሞም ንባጽዕ ኣብ ምሓዝ ተራ ተጻዊቱ።
ድሕሪ ዋዕላ በርሊን(1884) ድማ ኢጣልያ መሬት ኤርትራ ዝለዝተማቓርሐት ዝያዳ ግዝኣታ ንምስፍሕፋሕ ቀጸለት።
ጎኒ-ጎኒ ድማ ሃይማኖት ዓቢ ተራ ተጻዊቱ። ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ናይ ገዛእ ርእሱ ማእከላት ስለዝነበሮ ብባዕዳዊ ክግዛእ ቀሊል ኣይኮነን። ስለዝኾነ እታ መጀመርታ ክትግበር ዝግብኣ ሓደሽቲ ማእከላት ምስራሕ እዩ። ካብ 1820ታት ኣትሒዙ ክምዕብል ዝጀመረ ሓደሽቲ ማእከላት ድማ ብዝተፈላለየ ሸነኻት ኤርትራ ክምዕብል ጀሚሩ።
ነተን ካብ 1820ታት ክሳብ 1900ታት ኣብ ኤርትራ ዝማዕበላ ማእከላት ኣብዛ ሓጻር ጽሒፈይ ከቕርበን ቀሊል ኣይኮነን። እንተኾነ ግና ባዕዳውያን ገዛእቲ ኣብ መሬት ብሌን(ሰንሒት) ዝተኸተልዎ ስትራተጂ ብከፊሉ ክገልጽ ክፍትን እየ።
1. ምምስራት ማርያም ደዓሪት(1869)
ቅድሚ ምምጻእ ግብጻውያንን ኢጣልያውያንን ህዝቢ ብሌን ብውሑዱ ክልተ ዓበይቲ ማእከላት ነበራኦ። ንሳተን ድማ ገዳም ደብረ-ሲናን ገዳም እንዳ ስላሰን። ነዘን ክልተ ማእከላት ብምግባር ድማ ሃይማኖታዊ ኣገልግሎት ብቀሊሉ ይረክብ ነበረ።
ኣብዚ ማእከልነት ዝነበሮ ስሩዕ ሂወት ስለዝኾነ እቲ ህዝቢ ካብ ልማዱን ስርዓቱን ብቐሊሉ ዝላቐቕ ኣይኮነን። እቲ ዝበለጸ መንገዲ ነቲ ዝነበረ ማእከልነት መተካእታ ዝከውን ግና ከኣ ተመሳሳሊ ባህርይ ዘለዎ ማእከልነት ክምስረት ነበሮ።
በዚ መሰረት ካብታ ኣብ ደብረ-ሲና ዝነበረት መንበረ ታቦት ቅድስቲ ማርያም ክላቐቕ – ማርያም ደዓሪት ብፈረንሳውያን ተኸልሉ። ብሰንኩ ድማ ህዝቢ ነቲ ክሳብ ባሕሪ ንምቁጽጻር ዝጥቀመሉ ዝነበረ ማእከልነት ገዲፉ ናብ ዝረሓቐ ማእከላይ ቦታ ከም ማእከልነት ንምህናጽ ሓዳስ ከተማ ክትምዕብል ተገብረ። ኣብዛ ከተማ ድማ ዓበይቲ ቤተ እምነታት ክህነጹ ጀመሩ።
ገዳም ደብረ-ሲና ድማ ህቡብነታ ክዓኑ ተራእዩ።
2. ምምስራት ቤተ-ክርስትያን ከንሻ(1866)
ህዝበ ክርስትያን ኤርትራ ኣብ ልዕሊ ድንግል ማርያም ልዑል ኣኽብሮት ጥራሕ ዘይኮነስ ጸጋኣ ንኽረክብ ልዕሊ መጽሓፍ ቅዱስን ወንገልን እዩ ስማ ዝጽውዕን ጸጋ ንኽረክብ ድማ ናብ ገዳማትን ቤተ-ክርስትያናትን ዝኸይድ።
ምስ’ዚ ክብሪ ዘይከይድ ኣብ ኤውሮጳ ዝማዕበለ ሃይማንኖት ከንሻ ብሽወደናውያን ብባጽዕ ዝጀመረ ናብ ከባቢ ደብረሲና(ገለብ፥ ሮብቶን ከባቢኣን) ማእከሉ ብምትካል ነቲ ህዝቢ ምስ ገዳም ደብረ ሲና ከም ዝፋታሕ ገበርዎ።
ካብቲ ጥንታዊ ገዳም ክንገላገል – መጽሓድ ቅዱስ ዝማእከሉ ስርዓተ-ኣምልኾ ክንክተል ከንሻ ኣብ ገለብ ተኺሎምልና። ብኡ መጠን ኣገዳስነት ደብረ-ታቦት ቀኒሱ።
3. ምምስራት ካቴድራል ቅዱስ ምካኤል ከረን
ነቲ ብህዝቢ ብሌን ዓቢ ክብሪ ዝነበሮ ታቦት ቅዱስ ገርጊስ – ኣብ ጎኑ ታቦት ቅዱስ ምክኤል ብምምጻእ ነቲ ጥንታዊ ታቦት ህዝቢ ብሌን ከምቲ ዝህቦ ዝነበረ ክብሪ ከይህቦ ጌሮም ናብ ሓድሽ ታቦት ከም ዝግዕዝ ጌሮሞ።
ኣቐዲሞም ዝተኻየዱ ውዲታት
ምምስራት ሓደሽቲ ማእከላት ቀሊል ኣይነበረን። ነዚ ዕላማ ንምውቃዕ ኣቐዲሞም ንህዝቢ ሰንሒት ፋሕ ፋሕ ንኽብል እቲ ብልኡኽ ኤውሮጳውያን ከም ወኪል እስላማዊ ሃይማኖት ኣብ ከሰላ ማእከሉ ዝገበረ ብሃይማኖታዊት ስድራ-ቤት እንዳ ኣልሙርቓኒ(al-Murghani family) ማእከልነቶም ከሰላ ከም ዝሃንጹ ተገብረ።
ነቲ ድሕሪ ወራራት ፉንጂ(ሱዳን) ካብ 1504 ኣትሒዙ ኣብ ትሕቲ ዑመር ኩኑ (Omer Kunu)ዝተመስረተ ንግስነት ቢንዓምር ብድፍኢት ግብጻውያንን ሓደስቲ መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ኣል-ሙርቓንን ብ1821 ግዳይ ከም ዝኸውን እዩ ኮይኑ።
ብስርዓት ዝመሓደር ዝነበረ ህዝቢ ቢንዓምር ኣብ ትሕቲ ፍጹም ምቁፃር ኣልምርጋኒ ስለዝወድውቐ ምንጪ ሰራዊት ግብጺ ብምዃን ዕሱባት ዓሳክር ካብ ከሰላ ተበጊሶም ንመሬት ሰንሒት ብተደጋጋሚ ወረርዎን ዘመትዎን።
ምስ ተዳኸመ ድማ ከም ሓገዝቲ ተመሲሎም እቶም ኣብ ወደብ ባጽዕ ዝነበሩ ፈረንሳውያን ነቲ ኣብ ክርስትና በርቲዑ ዝተረፈ ክሕግዙ ከለዉ ነቲ ኣብ እስልምና ዝቐየረ ድማ እንዳ ኣልሙርጋኒ ተቖጻጸርዎ። በዚ መሰረት ህዝቢ ብሌን ፍርቁ ናብ እስልምና ተማዕቊቡ – ፍርቁ ድማ ናብ ካቶሊክ።
ሓርነትን ልዕላውነትን ቤተ እምነት ሓደ ኣካል ሓርነትን ልዕላውነትን ሃገር እዩ። ቤተ-እምነት ምስ ዝድፈር ልእላውነት ኣመንቲ ይድፈር። ልእላውነት ኣመንቲ ተደፊቱ ማለት ከኣ ሓርነት ውልቀ-ሰባት ክኽበር ኣይከኣልን። በዚ ስነ-መጎት ድማ ኣብ ቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣንጸላልዩ ዘሎ ናይ ጥፍኣት መንገዲ ኣብ ምዕቃብ ልዕላውነትን ናጽነትን ኤርትራ ኣዝዩ ሓደገኛ ብምዃኑ ኣመንት ሊቃውንትን መራሕትን ቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ካብዚ ናይ ጥፍኣት መንገዲንኽወጹ ዝምሕጸን ሓፈሻዊ ፖለቲካዊ ነጥብታት ኣልዒለ ክዘራረብ ፈቲነ ኣለኹ።
ኣብዚ ካልኣይ ክፋል ብዛዕባ ኣብ ኤርትራ ዝርከባ 22 ጥንታውያን ገዳማት ኦርቶዶክሳዊት ተዋህዶ ኤርትራን ኣገዳስነትን ዝድህስስ ከምኡ ውን ከመይ ጌርና ልዕላውነተን ንሕልወለን ኣብ ዝብክ ዛዕባ ኣቶኪረ ሓሳባተይ ኣካፊለ ኣለኹ።
ብተወሳኺ ውን ብዛዕባ ካልኦት ቤተ-እምነታት ብፍላይ እስልምና ዘተኮረ ምስ ጥንታውነቱን ኣገዳስነቱን ኣተኣሳሲረ ተዛማዲ ስነ-መጎት ከቕርብ ፈቲነ ኣለኹ።
ንዝያዳ ምሉእ ትሕዝቶ ኣብዛ video ተኸታተኡ።
ኤርትራ ብታሪኽ ሃብታማት ዝኾኑ ቅርስታት ዝውንኑ ብዙሓት ጥንታውያን ገዳማት እትውንን ሃገር ኮይና ንታሪኽ ኤርትራ ንምርዳእን ኤርትራውያን ዝነበሮም ርእዮተ-ዓለምን ንምርዳእ ብቐሊሉ መሃሪ ዝኾኑ ገዳማት ዝሓዘት ሃገር እያ። ገዳማት ተደኲኖምሉ ዝርከቡ ኣከባቢታት ነጸብራቕ ዝነበረ ስልጣኔታት ኮይኑ ኣብቲ ከባቢ ዝነብር ህዝቢ ድማ ነዘን ገዳማት ክሕልወ ከማዕብለን ኮነ ክዕቅበን ግቡእ ሓላፍነት ኣለዎ።
ህላውነትን ቀጻልነትን ናይዘን ገዳማት ድማ ቀጻልነት መንነትን ዋንነትን ናይቲ ህዝቢ የመልክት። ብፍላይ ኣብዚ እዋን ዝተፈላለዩ ዓውለማዊ ተርእዮታት እናተኸሰቱ ስለዝኸዱ ምስ ምህሳስ ጥንታውያን ገዳማት ንኤርትራ ብሓድሽ ሕብረተ-ሰብ ንምትካእ ዝቐለለ ክኸውን ይኽእል።
ብፍላይ ምስ ዋንነት መሬትን ኣብ ግዜ ነውጺ ዝፍጠሩ ፍሉይ ተርእዮታት ምግሃስ ሰብኣዊ መሰላትን ኣብ ባይታ ዝጸንሕ ፍሉይ ቅርሲ ዝቐለለ መርትዖ ስለዝኸውን ኩሉ ኤርትራዊ ብተገዳስነት ክከናኸኖምን ክዕቅቦምን ጽቡቕ እዩ።
ብዝረኸብክዎ ዝርዝር ኣብ ኤርትራ ልዕሊ 22 ገዳማት ኣብ ፈቐድኡ ኣውራጃታት ይርከቡ። እዚ ድማ ታሪኽ ክርስትና ኤርትራ ብቐሊሉ ክንመሃር ይሕግዘና። ንዝያዳ ትንታኔ ድማ ኣብ ዝቕጽሉ ጽሑፋት ክዝርዝሮም ክፍትን እየ።
1。ገዳም ደብረ ወርቅ ኣቡነ ሊባኖስ ሃም-ሃገረ ስብከት – ኣከለጉዛይ
2。ገዳም ደብረ ሲና ፡ ሓማሴን
3。ገዳም ቅዱስ ዮሓንስ መጥምቕ ቴድረር- ኣከለጉዛይ
4。ገዳም ደብረ ጽጌ ኣቡነ እንድርያስ ሰፍኣ- ኣከለጉዛይ
5。ገዳም ደብረ ድምኅ ኣቡነ መርቆሬዎስ- ሰራየ
6。ገዳም ወግረ ስኂን ኣቡነ እንድርያስ ዕፉን – ሰራየ
7。ገዳም ቅድስቲ ድንግል ማርያም ዓይላ ጉንደት- ሰራየ
8。ገዳም ደብረ ቊስቋም ቅድስት ድንግል ማርያም ድባርዋ- ሰራየ
9。ገዳም ደብረ ቢዘን ኣቡነ ፍሊጶስ- ሓማሴን
10。ገዳም ደብረ ጥሉል ኣቡነ ኣብራንዮስ እንዳ ኣቦና – ሰራየ
11。ገዳም ደብረ ኮል ኣቡነ ብሩክ ኣምላክ መራጉዝ- ሰራየ
12。ገዳም ደብረ ድኁኋን ኣቡነ ዮናስ ቆሓይን – ሰራየ
13。 ገዳም ደብረ ጽጌ ኣቡነ ዮናስ ትምዛእ – ሰራየ
14。ገዳም ደብረ ጽዮን ኣቡነ ዮናስ ዓዲ ውስኽ – ሰራየ
15。 ገዳም ደብረ ምዕዋን ኣቡነ ብፁእ-ኣምላክ – ኣከለጉዛይ
16。ገዳም ደብረ ኮዳዱ ኣቡነ ብፁእ-ኣምላክ
17。ገዳም ደብረ ወገሪቆ ኣቡነ ተክለ ሃይማኖት ሊባን – ሓማሴን
18。ገዳም ደብረ ሓዋርያት ኣቡነ ሴት ዓዲ ቂታ
19。ገዳም ጻዕዳ እምባ ሥላሴ፡ ዞባ ዓንሰባ – ሰንሒት
20。ገዳም ቅድስት ዳምያና
21。ገዳም ደብረ ማርያም ሃም – ኣከለጉዛይ
22。 ገዳም ኣቡነ ኣብሳዲ ክሳሄ – ሰራየ
ሓርነትን ልዕላውነትን ቤተ እምነት ሓደ ኣካል ሓርነትን ልዕላውነትን ሃገር እዩ። ቤተ-እምነት ምስ ዝድፈር ልእላውነት ኣመንቲ ይድፈር። ልእላውነት ኣመንቲ ተደፊቱ ማለት ከኣ ሓርነት ውልቀ-ሰባት ክኽበር ኣይከኣልን። በዚ ስነ-መጎት ድማ ኣብ ቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣንጸላልዩ ዘሎ ናይ ጥፍኣት መንገዲ ኣብ ምዕቃብ ልዕላውነትን ናጽነትን ኤርትራ ኣዝዩ ሓደገኛ ብምዃኑ ኣመንት ሊቃውንትን መራሕትን ቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ካብዚ ናይ ጥፍኣት መንገዲንኽወጹ ዝምሕጸን ሓፈሻዊ ፖለቲካዊ ነጥብታት ኣልዒለ ክዘራረብ ፈቲነ ኣለኹ።
ንዝያዳ ነዛ ብዕለት 03/12/2018 ዝዘርጋሕዋ መደብ ክትከታተሉ ይዕድም።
እዚ ጽሑፍ’ዚ ካብ መርበብ ሓበሬታ ዛራ ጥበባት (Zara Tbebat) ዝተወስደ ኮይኑ ኣብ ኤርትራ ክንደይ ሕግታት ከም ዝነበረን ኣብ’ዚ ግዜ’ዚ ውን ወላ ደኣ ከም’ቲ ዝድለ ኣየገልግለ መሰረት ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ዋንነትን ስለዝኮነ ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ስነ መጎት ኣዝ’ዩ ኣገዳሲ ቦታ እዩ ዘለዎ። ብፍላይ ኣብ ምምስራት ስርዓተ ኤርትራ እዞም ሕግታት እምነ መሰረትን መሰረት ደቀ-ባት ኤርትራ ዘውሕሱን ስለዝኾኑ ኩሉ ሰብ ክፈልጦም ክዕቅቦምን ግዴታ ኣለዎ።
ኣብዚ ዝርዝር 32 ስርዓታትን ሕግታትን ቀሪቦም ኣለዉ። ኣብ ቀጻሊ ንነፍሲ ወከፍ ክዝርዝሮም ክፍትን እየ።
1- ስርዓት ሎጎ-ሳርዳ – (ጥንታዊ ፊደላት ትግርኛ ጽሑፍ ዝተረኽቦ ናይ 13 ክ/ዘ) – Order of Logo-Sarda (13thC)
2- ስርዓት ኣድከመ ምልጋእ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Adkeme-Milga
3- ስርዓት ኣድግናተገለና – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Adgine-Tegelena
4- ስርዓት ሎጎ-ጭዋ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ (ናይ 15 ክ/ዘ ምዃኑ‘ዩ) – Order of Logo-Chewa
5- ስርዓት እንዳ ፍግራይ፡ ሰለስተ ዋዕላ ጽምሮ ትምዛኣ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ (ናይ 13 ክ/ዘ ምዃኑ ይንገረሉ) – Order of Enda Figray : Seleste Waela Tsimro Timza’A
6- ስርዓት እንጋንኣ ዓጽሚ ሓርማዝ – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Engan’A Atsimi Harmaz
7- ሕጊ ቡሮ ዓልን መድዓን (ሕጊ ዓፋር) – ቅድሚ መግዛእቲ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Buro Ali and Med’A (Afar Customary Law)
8- ስርዓት ካርነሽም – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Karneshim
9- ስርዓት ደምበዛን – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of Dembezan
10- ስርዓት ሸውዓተ ዓንሰባ – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Order of ShewAte Anseba
11- ሕጊ ሰሓርቲ-ላምዛ-ወቀርትን ዳምባን – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Seharti – Lamza – Weqerti Customary Law
12- ስርዓት ሃብተስሉስ-ገብረክርስቶስ-ደቀተሽም – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደብተረ – Habte Slus – Ghebrekristos-Deqi Tashim Customary Law
13- ስርዓት ምዔም-መሓዛ (ድሒሩ ምስ ስርዓት ኣድግና-ተገለባ ዝተጸንበረ) – Order of Mie Mehaza
14- ስርዓት ሓደግቲ – Order of Hadegti
15- ስርዓት ማይ-ኣድጊ – Order of Mai Adgi
16- ስርዓት ዝባን ሰራውን እንዳ ደቆን – Order of Ziban Seraw and Enda Deqon
17- ስርዓት ኣርባዕተ በዓልፋን – Order of Arbaete Bealfun
18- ስርዓት ጽንዓደግለ – Order of TsinAdegle
19- ሕጊ ዓደ‘ዓውለ – Ade Awle Customary Law
20- ስርዓት ዘማት – Order of Zemat
21- ስርዓት ሊባን – Order of Liban
22- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል ሳሆ (ሕጊ ሳሆ) – ኣብ ግዜ መግዛእቲ እንግሊዝ ዝተደብተረ – Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Saho (Saho Customary Law)
23- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል ኣልሳሕል ኣልዓም (ሕጊ ሳሕል) – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ –
Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Sahel Al’Am (Sahel
24- ኣልቃኑን ኣልዕሩፍ ልሙስሊምን ሊቀባኢል በኒዓምር (ሓድሽ ሕጊ በኒዓምር) – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ –
Alqanun Al’Eruf Limuslimin Liqebaeil Beni Amir (New
Customary Law of Beni Amir)
25- ሕጊ ቤት ታርቀ ቦጎስ ብሌን – ኣብ ግዜ ፈደረሽን 50ታት ዝተደብተረ – Bet Tarqe Bogos Bilen
26- ሕጊ ማርያ (ሕግታት ማርያ ጸሊምን ቀይሕን) – ኣብ ግዜ መግዛእቲ ጥልያንን ኢትዮጵያን ዝተደብተረ – Marya
Customary Law (Marya Keyih and Marya Tselim)
27- ሕጊ ከልአ-መንሳዕ ፍትሕ መሓሪ – ኣብ ግዜ ጥልያን ዝተደፍተረ – Kel’E-Mensa’e fith Mehari
28- ሕጊ ብሌን ታርቀን ታውቀን 12ተ ነገደን (ዝተወሃሃደ ሕጊ ብሌን) – ድሕሪ ናጽነት ኤርትራ – Bilen Tarqe-Tawqe-12 Neged Law
29- ሕጊ ኩናማ (ቡያ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Kunama
Customary Law (Buya)
30- ሕጊ ናራ (ቡታ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Nara
31- ሕጊ ብዳውየት (ኣልሳዋሊፍ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Bidawet
32- ሕጊ ራሻይዳ (መድዓ) – ኣይተደፍተረን – Rashaida