Eritrea fueling Ethio-Egyptian Tensions as a means of proxy war with Ethiopia

Awate Staff of www.awate.com has translated and published an interview conducted in Arabic by AlMasri Al Youm with PFDJ(Eritrea) ambassador in Cairo, Fasil Gebreselassie Tekhla.

The interview revealed how far Eritrea is involved between the two countries. It is literally beating drums of war. After categorically describing the Ethiopian Renaissance dam project a “politically motivated one”, he recalled a conversation that was sought to happen between Late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and an Egyptian officer. In his own words,

————————————–Beginning of Quote ————————————————

In 1993, in its first official representation as an independent state, Eritrea attended in one of the African conferences in Cairo, where the then Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi was present. At the time, the relation between the two countries was excellent. And here Zenawi presented an idea: Just like the Arabs sell oil to us, we sell water to all countries. The Eritrean president strongly rejected the proposal, and here, the late General Omar Suleiman, the former head of the General Intelligence responded to him. He said to Zenawi: “And who are you to say that?”

—————————————— End of Quote —————————————————-

The same accusation was brought by Dictator Issaias Afewerki in an interview conducted with ESAT Reporters.

When the Ambassador was asked how he sees the Renaissance dam crisis, he jumped to accuse USA and some Gulf countries[though he didn’t mention, his target was Qatar] collaborative desire to make Egypt thirsty by reducing water supply to the Nile river

In his words, as it is published by Awate staff

————————————–Beginning of Quote ————————————————

Q: How do you see the Renaissance Dam crisis?

Response: Eritrea has officially declared that the construction of the Renaissance Dam has no positive purpose in the interest of the Ethiopian people. The decision to build it is a political decision and not economic. We are not against any development project in any African country, but the dam is not for a developmental purpose.

Q: What is the real purpose behind this “political goal”?

Response: Ethiopia is mainly dependent on economic aid. It is the main African country that receives the most economic assistance from the United States, the European Union, and the World Bank. It is a country that has a “famine” and asks for assistance from the United Nations to feed its people. There are some countries that help it to finance the construction of the dam.

Q: Who are these countries?

Response: Any country that wants to fight Egypt will not resort to a direct military solution. This method no longer exists on the ground, so the last card in that war is to “make Egypt Thirsty.”

Q: Do you mean that Ethiopia wants to “make Egypt Thirsty”?

Response: Not only Ethiopia, but some Western and [Arab] Gulf countries stand behind Ethiopia and support the construction of the Renaissance Dam. Particularly since the area where the Renaissance dam is located is not suitable for agriculture.

——————————————- End of Quote ——————————————

This is a serious allegation that is intended to add fuel for the already growing tensions between Ethiopia and Egypt.

For more details, please read  “Eritrean Ambassador: The USA and Gulf States Want to “Make Egypt Thirsty” at awate.com

Some Historical Facts

PFDJ Allies 

PFDJ has never missed an ally that can assist it to stay in power. Its allies are really serving well to the intended purpose. And these allies are insane as they have their own insane interest. 

Eritrea’s main purpose is to keep Ethiopia as a hostage by creating interest group enemies that can be used as direct agents of proxy wars. I am not sure how pragmatic Ethiopia is to change its strategy, but PFDJ approach is very dynamic yet simple.

Since the termination of border war with Ethiopia, Eritrea understood that any additional war can put its sovereignity at risk. Despite the final and binding Algeriers agreement, the two countries could not come into peace terms. As a result, they found themselves in a “No War, No Peace” situation. Since then, Eritrea continued to play a proxy war that diverts Ethiopia’s energy and forces from being directed to  the North border.

Ally I: Al-Shabaab of Somalia

When Ethiopia refused to be abided by the decision of Border Commission, Eritrea’ s first decision was to make an ally with Somalian rebel forces and put Ethiopia into the game of proxy war. It was a perfect strategy that has served well for a while. Since 2006, it has started to coperate with Somalian forces who were fighting to restore peace and order in accordance to Islamic guidelines. When Ethiopia interferred in Somalian Internal Affairs under a cover of an agent of peace keeping force to back up The Transitional Federal Government and protect Somalia from  being ruled by “Islamic Courts Union”, Eritrea worked with Qatar in organizing rebel forces that fight against the Ethiopia backed federal government of Somalia.

This lead to the creation of Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia. The Alliance created could not work together and the division gave birth of Al-Shabaab militant group. Sooner Al-Shabaab was accused as terrorist group by international community. And it was not secret as it has revealed its alignment with Al-Qaeda in consequent years. As a result Eritrea was accused of arming, training and financing this terrorist group. In 2009, United Nation Security Council(UNSC) imposed sanction over Eritrea. Since then, there are always some fresh allegations that is keeping the sanction in place.

Ally II: Qatar

From the very beginning, Qatar’s main interest was to use Eritrea as a path way to  Somalia. As a cover, Qatar started some small investments. And when a border dispute occured between Eritrea and Djibouti(2008), Qatar became the sole guarantee of peace keeping mission in a UN backed peace agreement. To avoid military clashes, Qatar sent about 450 peace keeping soldiers in the disputing border area.

In June 2017, the Gulf Crisis affected Eritrea and Qatar relationship. Eritrea sided with forces lead by Saudi Arabia forcing Eritrea to distance from Qatar. Qatar peace keeping forces withdrew from the disputed border.

During the good insane diplomatic years, Qatar was backing Eritrea for its financial needs spent in a proxy war to back rebel forces in Somalia and Ethiopian opposition forces that were stationing in Eritrean territory. 

When Qatar learned Eritrea stood with Saudi Arabia lead forces, it ended its relationship with Eritrea without notice and discussion. This brought to an end of 12 years Eritrea – Qatar diplomatic relationship. Though, no country has officially declared for any type of diplomatic rupture, early developments showed that these two countries had ended their relationship.

Ally III: Egypt

After the Gulf crisis, Egypt seems to replace Qatar. Egypt’s main interest is Ethiopia’s Dam Construction Project. Egypt does not want this dam to be constructed at all. But the possibility of stopping from being finished as planned seems almost impossible. Instead, what Egypt is doing is that it is creating pressure so that Egypt’s water needs might not be affected.

To put pressure on Ethiopia, Eritrea is needed most. And Eritrea needs Egyptiance presence to divert Ethiopia’s intention that could potentially be directed to the North. To weaken Ethiopia internally, Eritrea needs countries which have interest in Ethiopia for the same mission. Egypt is a perfect choice. As a result, Eritrea is using Egypt as an means of proxy-war with Ethiopia.

Conclusion

Eritrea’s main interest is not a secret. It has nothing to do with Egyptian interest. Eritrea’s main objective is to use Egypt as a proxy war ally. For the last 26 years, Eritrea and Egypt had no any meaningful diplomatic relationships. It was not needed. And I believe it is not needed now too, especially this kind of insane relationship.

If Egypyt is committed for a sustainable peaceful agreement with Ethiopia, and indeed it needs it badly, no other means is productive than creating a strong diplomatic relationship with Ethiopia and other Nile Countries. Eritrea is just fueling any tension that can occur with Ethiopia no matter with which country it is.

Ethiopia seems not to be intimidated by Egypt to hult its more than century objective of constructing dam in the Nile river. It is for Egypt’s advantage if Egypt coperates with Ethiopia technically to avoid serious risk in the future. At the same time, I encourage Egypt to invest in such project so that it can  share its responsibility to make the project successfull for all those who benefit from it.

Peace in the horn of Africa is beneficial to Egypt. Egypt should help the horn of Africa to create a peacefull co-existence. Otherwise, Egyptian people will continue to worry for their daily life. 

 

 

 

 

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Mentors of my Fearless Passion

For a long time, I was a victim of my own political thinking; a thinking that I had deep inside but unable to put them in shape. I was not able to communicate to the outisde world clearly. And often, many people whom I had a chance to interact with were unable to figure out what I was coveying through my political writings. They were able to figure out my energy and potential the same as I do. Unfortunately, I continued to live in a limbo of unfiltered political thinking.

Since my childhood, I was lucky enough to be exposed to a diversified world. At the same time, the diversified world I joined in had a its own meris and demerits. I had a mixed feelings. I had no clear path to make use of that diverse and beautiful world  experiences so that my life and the life of others could be better. 

The time I started to engage in politics, I had no clear political thinking to start with except my hate to PFDJ regime and exposing it’s ideology. Even my first publicly published article under a title, “Rule of the Jungle and a Quest of PFDJ Mindset” is all about PFDJ Ideology. I continued to write about PFDJ political ideology without hiding my hate towards it. My call to weed-out PFDJ is so loud. Members from Awate Forum consider my approach as extreme as it sounded. And it was.

With time, things started to change. After three years of engagement in political writings, debates and discussions, I started to realize that I filtered my political thinking and what I am passionate to advocate for. By now, my I am a liberal democrat who is serious on human rights issue and democracy.

My constant readings, following prominent politicians, human rights and political activists, and known world politicians helped to shape my political thinking.

At this time, it is a noble thing to mention some of the very few Eritreans  and world figures that I am closely following. Without doubt, they are helping me to shape my politics and what I care most.

  1. Elizabeth Chyrum 

Image may contain: 1 person, standing, indoor and outdoorCommonly called by her nickname, Elsa, is without doubt one who is helping me to be enlightened what Human Rights Activism is. I am learning what a fearless human Rights activist is day in day out from her works. My admiration to her works is so public. She is a model one ordinary citizen who is willing to learn from.

Elsa is a typical Human Rights Activist and Defender. I hope many Eritreans who want to engage in Human Rights Activism to learn from her wisdom.

2. Saleh Ghadi Johar

Image may contain: 1 person, smiling, closeupSaleh is a patriot political activist. His selfless, fearless, encyclopedic knowledge about Eritrea and Eritreans is simply wonderful. He is like an open book. What you need is just to approach him. He is available, caring, willing, and a mentor.

Though his conservative political approach may put a free a young, innocent and open minded person in a puzzle, his willingness and readiness to communicate in almost everything about politics is a blessing one to share with. More than his political life, he is a geniune justice loving man.

Saleh Johar values friendly relationship more than politics. He never misses to ask about family. This shows how good hearted person he is.

 3. Saleh Younis

Image may contain: 1 personThis guy is a typical minded person. Though I don’t agree with his politics, my admiration for his analytical mind is beyond what I can say in words. Since 2013, I am learning a lot from his sharp mind. What I admire most about him is his communication skills.

His advocacy for Human Rights and knowledge on international issues is what I want to learn from.

He is a man who combined passion and profession.

If you ask me who can save Eritrea from today’s chaos – I have no doubt to mention Saleh Younis. If he gets an opportunity, I have no doubt he will transform Eritrea into one of the best democratic state in Africa.

4. Yosief Gebrehiwet

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "yosief ghebrehiwet asmarino"Of course I don’t agree with his politics. I describe him as one who has a “Dead Soul Mind”. I once wrote an argumentative article against what he wrote for (you can find them in Part I and Part II of my articles)

Nevertheless, he is one of those great minded Eritreans any open minded person can learn from. His critical thinking has helped me to learn how to analyse and step your pen closer on controversial issues. He is a person whom you should learn from if you are planning  to build serious political arguments. There is no doubt that he will continue to be one of those controversial political thinkers that will be referenced, discussed, debated and possibly a source of political conflict in the future Eritrea.

5. Abba Mussie Zeray

Image may contain: 1 person, beardAbba Mussie is a perfect example of determination, persistence, relentlessness, availability and compassion. His fearless stand for humanity is a typical model if one wants to be inspired. What I am learning most from him is how a singe man is capable of doing a miraculous job of saving thousands of lives.

6. Pope Francis

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "pope francis"Without doubt he is a great spiritual leader. Pope Francis is a unique human being. His message and care for humanity is what it is making me passionate about his teachings. He is a man of peace and love.

His fearless advocacy for world peace, humanity, protecting our planet, welcoming and hosting refugees without discrimination, his call to build more bridges than walls, his spiritual leadership, readiness to work with all religious groups, etc, are among those I admire most. I am learning how a single good minded person can make a change no matter how strongly established institutions exist.

7. Barak Obama

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "barack Obama"I consider Obama as a person of clear and noble minded politician. In 2008, I remember repeating his motto, “Change” when I started to involve in my former college development programs. Since then, I am learning from wisdom, speech skills and leadership quality. I am finding him a man of measured wisdom.

I am learning how one can achieve great achievements even when there is a closed chamber working environment. I am learning whatever bottlenecks one may face, still there can be great changes to be achieved. His major strength, “HOPE” is one that I learned to keep it as a motivatioanl tool of doing things.

8. Bernie Sanders

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "bernie sanders"Sanders is a fighter. I love this guy for his energy, passion and simplified but strong messages. From Sanders, I am learning that politics exists in words. The way we interprate and analyse words so that we can use them for our own advantage.

His campaign for what he believes on, closeness to people, passion to address issues, etc, are a remarkable lessons to learn as great political lessons.

9. Guy Verhofstadt 

Image may contain: one or more people and eyeglassesI consider him as Bernie of Europe. His advocacy for a strong and reformed European Union is a typical example. I am taking lessons from his Liberal democratic political approach. His passion and strong communication skills are typical examples of a need to have a strong message. I am learning lessons of passion and communication skills effeciency.

10. Trevor Noah 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "trevor noah"I came to be familiar with Trevor when I was in China. He was in the comedy business by that time. I found him while searching some videos that could make me laugh and relax. And since he became the main host for TV daily Show, I started to follow his him daily.

Without doubt, he is among those sharp minded people I came to know. His entertaining skills and relaxed approach on serious political issues, his critical and indeepth analysis, his articulation skills, openness, and charming approach is helping me to make politics part of my life without being drowned into the abyss of non solvable political problems.

11. Tariq Ramadan

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "tariq ramadan"If there is anyone who wants to learn public and political engagement, Tariq Ramadan is one whom you can learn from.

I came to know Tariq Ramadan in 2013 while I was searching for speeches in French. My primary objective was to learn French. But sooner, I felt in love with his teachings. His fluency in French, English and Arabic is simply a free gift for one to learn from.

Beside his noble teachings about Islam, his engagement with politicians is simply amazing. From Tariq ramadan I am learning how to engage states, politicians and ordinary people for the cause whoom one is interested for.

12. Nelson Mandela

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Nelson Mandela"Of course, this great man is a source of political and human wisdom.  When ever I watch his speeches, I started to cry out of joy and ecstacy.

What amazes me most about Mandela is that his clear and strong stand for freedom without any compromise and his forgiveness power to heal the wounds of past grievances.

Above all, he never forgot those who were with him throught his entire struggle years.

 

 

 

 

Switzerland – Eritrea Gold Trade Activity and its Implications: Updates from Annelies Djellal-Müller

On 31/08/2017, I wrote a news report about a secret unrefined gold trade activity that was going on between Eritrea and Switzerland between 2011 and 2013. This secret was revealed after journalists produced an investigative report which was broadcasted by SFR Tv channel.   As a continuation, I am sharing this update report originally written by Annelies Djellal-Müller on her facebook page. I am publishing the material as I found it important to share as an update upon request. 

Dear Eritrean friends worldwide

During the past week, two relevant developments concerning Eritrea took place in Switzerland. I’d like to keep you updated and – for the sake of the many affected Eritrean asylum seekers in Switzerland – I would kindly ask you to raise your voices in any way possible regading your current situation.

30/08/2017

A report aired on Swiss television showed Switzerland’s involvement in gold exports from Eritrea during the years 2011 – 2013.

Schweizer Geschäfte mit einem geächteten Regime

The research was done after Dr. Daniel Rezene Mekonnen (and friends) pointed out to journalist Georg Humbel that Swiss companies imported gold from the Bisha mine in Eritrea in order to finalize its proccessing through the so-called proccedure of “smelting” which could not be done in Eritrea itself.

Three weeks before, US-based Eritrean journalist Abraham Zere travelled to Switzerland and hinted at Swiss French Television that both the Swiss National Banc and the Zurich cantonal banc up to date held shares worth more than 1 million Swiss francs at Nevsun LTD.

La Banque nationale suisse (BNS) et la Banque cantonale de Zurich investissent dans Nevsun Resources accusée de complicité dans l’utilisation de travail forcé en Erythrée ; avec la réponse des banques

31/08/2017

Just one day later (what a surprise, especially when remembering that the law enforcement against Eritrean asylum seekers had been published already on the very same day when the huge demonstration in favour of the UN-report took place in Geneva on 23rd of June 2016), our Federal administrative court, the last instance having the competence to rule over appeals against asylum decisions issued by the State Secretariat for Migration, published its long-awaited landmark verdict on whether it is within the law to send Eritrean refugges back to their country of origin.

Funnily, if you have a look at the verdict, you will see that it was already issued on August 17 2017. When keeping the principle of balance of power in mind, this “coincidence” must appear more than strange. You will find the verdict (D-2311/2016)
as well as the press release on the website of the Federal Administrative court.
www.bvger.ch

After the very same court ruled on Jan 30ieth 2017 that the single claim of having left Eritrea illegally was no longer sufficient to gain temporary admittance (for possible dangers of persecution in case of a push-back to Eritrea), the Federal Administrative Court now rules that persons who have (presumably) been released from the military service could no longer fulfil the qualitiy as a refugee for they will not be persecuted after returning to Eritrea.

Three points are of main importance when looking at the verdict:

  1. Credibility (according to Art. 7 Swiss asylum law and defined under 5.1 in the verdict).
  2. The claim concerning the illegal exit (Art. 54 Swiss asylum law and thus defined under 6.1 – 6.3) and
  3. The question whether it is possible to return persons back to Eritrea (Art. 3 and 4 EHRC, illustrated under point 8.1ff).

In brief:

The court reaches the conclusion that persons can be sent back to Eritrea when they have (presumably) been released from military service (in its Press release, the court uses the term “veteran” in order to make public believe that it is referring to elderly people, which in the case herein is not true). This, it resumes, is possible after people “regularize” their relationship with the Eritrean government (mainly by paying the 2% tax and signing the repentence form).

It also refers to the so-called diaspora status and to the fact that many people are going back to Eritrea even after having left Eritrea illegally. It doesn’t take notice of the fact, however, that government-friendly groups practically agitate freely and without restriction in Switzerland and that these very groups instrumentalize and target newly arrived refugees deliberately in order to missuse them for their propaganda.

Several human rights groups have strongly criticized the verdict. The Swiss refugee council calls it as “not understandable”.

Rückkehr nach Eritrea nicht generell unzumutbar

Ms. Denise Graf, director of Amnesty international Switzerland, states that it was irresponsible to issue such a verdict as long not even un-delegates are permitted access to the country.

Rückkehr nach Eritrea nicht generell unzumutbar

The lawyer who launched the now rejected appeal to the Federal Administrative Court is probably the most knowledgeable lawyer when it comes to Eritrea-related issues. He has already strongly criticized the work of the Swiss “fact finding mission” to Eritrea of March 2016 on whise findings the State Secretariat for Migration reasoned its findings and the law enforcement of June 2016 thereafter. He states that at several points, the report of the “fact finding mission” violated the COI-standards by almost exclusively referring to government-related or at least -censured statements and reached the conclusion that its findings were therefore based on a very weak base of evidence. I write this, for, even in its actual verdict, the Federal Administrative Court refers several times to the mentionned findings.

  1. So concluding all this, my humble opinion about the current verdict is: The verdict is politically motivated;
  2. The time of its publication was deliberately chosen in order to draw the public’s attention away from the “gold scandal”;
  3. The basis of the court ruling is extremely weak; in the current situation, no one can ever be able to grant that returnees will not be targeted after their push-back to Eritrea;
  4. As “credibility” according Art. 7 is the main criteria on which asylum claims are evaluated, the danger of arbitrary decisions and verdicts is extremely high; it will affects mostly women (for they often keep silent about sexual assaults) and people with low education and a restricted capability to express themselves. When it comes to alledged “contradictions”, we must also bare in mind that the first “interview” usually takes place just days after a refugee arrives in Switzerland. It is held short, and the refugee is told several times to only recount very briefly on his/her asylum claims.
  5. The verdict does not solve any problems for there is no treaty existing which would permit Switzerland to send the affected people back to Eritrea; instead, they will end up with 8 Francs a day with no perspective to participate in language courses or even receive a working permit. The danger that the will face serious psychological and even physical issues or that they will end up in criminal activities as a result of their inevitable situation is thus high.
  6. The pressure on our politicians to further involve with the dictatorial Regime in Asmara just for the sake of negociating the above-mentionned lacking treaty is high; This, in consequence, implies that human rights concern shall even will further be subordinated to political and even economic Goals – a fact that is another treason of the principle that Switzerland was a country that can be proud of its praized humanitarian Tradition.

As an activist and also a Swiss citizen, I am very concerned about the consequences of this verdict, especially because I fear that it could have further implications on the ruling in other European countries such as Germany (after Germany has enforced its practice on Afghan asylum seekers, e/g, Switzerland has soon after followed the example).

Please help to shed more light on what is really behind these developments and help us to raise public awareness.

Annelies Djellal-Müller is A Swiss Citizen Activist involved in the Eritrean Human Rights Issue

 

 

ሓደ መስከረም: መሰረት ቃልሲ ኤርትራውያን ንሓርነት

በቲ መጀመርታ ግዜ

ወላ’ኳ ኤርትራ ከም ሃገር ብወግዒ ኣብ 1890 ዓ.ም.ፈ ትቑም; ነቲ ድሕሪ ተኸታተልቲ መግዛእትታት ክትረኽቦ ዝግብኣ ዝነበረ ነጻነት ብሰንኪ ጎበጣዊ ሕልሚ ጎረቤት ኢትዮጵያ; ከምተን ብመግዛእታዊ ዶብ ዝቖማ ሃገራት ኣፍሪቃ ኣብ ኣብ ግዚኡ ክኸውን ኣይከኣለን። ኢትዮጵያ ናይ ትግብኣኒ ዝብል ዓማጺ ተግባር ዘበገሶ ዕንቅፋት መጀመርታ ኣብ 1952 ብፈደረሽን  ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ክቑረና ከለዋ ድሕሪኡ’ውን ኢትዮጵያ ብሕጊ ፈደረሽን ተቖሪና ክትከይድ ዓቕሊ ክትገብር ብዘይምኽኣላ ኣብ 1962 ብናይ በይንኣዊ ኣዋጅ ኣካል ኢትዮጵያ ክትከውን ኣገዲዳ።

ዓማጺ ምንቅስቓስ ኢትዮጵያ ካብ መጀመርታኡ ጥዑይ ከምዘይኮነ ዝተገንዘቡ ኤርትራውያን; ብ1958 ኣብ ሱዳን ብምዃን ብኣግኡ ፖለቲካዊ ምንቅስቓስ ንምሉእ ሓርነት ኤርትራ ኣብ ትሕቲ ምንቅስቓስ ሓርነት ኤርትራ ብምዃን ከበጋግሱ ክኢሎም ኔሮም። እዚ ፖለቲካዊ ምንቅስቓስ ብዝነበሮ ውሁድን ምስጢራ’ውን ኣካይዳ ኣብ ሓጺር ግዜ ንብዙሓት ኤርትራውያን ክውድብን ኣምራት ሓርነት እንታይ ክኸውን ከምዝግባእ ብግቡእ ከስተምህርን ፖለቲካዊ ንቕሓት ናይ ብዙሓት ኤርትራውያን ከማዕብል ክኢሉ እዩ።

ምስ ግዜን መቐጸልታ ናይ ዝተረኽበ ንቕሓት ተወሲኽዎ; ንመንግስቲ ኢትዮጵያ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ጥራሕ እኹል ኣይኮነን እንታይ ደኣ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ክካየድ ኣለዎ ዝብል ካልእ በይናዊ ምውድዳብ በቲ ግዜ’ቲ ኣብ ስደት ብዝነብሩ ዝነበሩ ኤርትራውያን ካብ 1960 ኣትሓዙ ኣብ ግብጺ (ካይሮ) ክወዳደብ ጀሚሩ። ከም ውጽኢቱ ድማ ብ1 መስከረም 1961 ምስ ኣብ ውሽጢ ኤርትራ ዝነብር ዝነበረ ጅግናን ስዉእን ሓምድ እድሪስ ዓዋተ ብምርኻብ ፈላሚ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ንናጽነት ኤርትራ ካብ ጎበጣ ኢትዮጵያ ተጀሚሩ።

ጀመርቲ ናይ’ዚ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ወላ’ኳ ካብ’ቶም ድሮ ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ዝነጥፉ ዝነበሩ ፍሉይ መንገዲ ክኽተሉ እንተጀመሩ፡ ንኢትዮጵያ ቀሊል ብድሆ ኮይኑ ኣይቀረበን። ከም ሳዕቤኑ ድማ ድሕሪ ናይ 10 ዓመትን 2 ወርሕን (ማለት፡ ካብ 15/09/1952 ክሳብ 15/11/1962) ዝነበረ ቃል ኪዳን ፈደረሽን ፈረሰ። ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ድማ ናይ መወዳእታ መልክዑ ክሕዝ ክኢሉ።

ምስ ግዜ፤ እቶም ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ጀሚሮም ዝነበሩ ኤርትራውያን ብረታዊ ቃልሲ’ውን ከም ኣካል ቃልሶም ክገብርዎ ስለዝመደቡ ብ1965 ናብ መሬት ኤርትራ ኣተዉ።  እንተኾነ እቲ ድሮ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ጀሚሩ ዝነበረ ውድብ ብጽቡቕ መንፈስ ክቕበሎም ስለዘይከኣለ ኣንጻሮም ብምዕጣቕ ነቲ ክርከብ ዝኽእል ዝነበረ  ምዕባለ ፖለቲካውን ብረታውን ቃልሲ ዓቢ ዕንቅፋት ኮይንዎ። ካብ’ቲ ግዜ’ቲ ኣትሒዙ እምበ’ኣር ኤርትራን ኤርትራውያንን በቲ ሓደ ኣንጻር ናይ ደገ ጸላኢ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ከካይዱ ከለዉ በቲ ሓደ ድማ ውሽጣዊ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ኣብ ምክያድ ተጸሚዶም።

ቃልሲ ኣካል ናይቲ ጉዕዞ ናብ ሓርነት

ዉሽጣዊ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ እናበርትዐ ኣብ ዝኸደሉ ዝነበረ ግዜ; ኣብ መጀመርታ 1970ታት ካልኣይቲ ውድብ ካብ መሳርዕ ተጋድሎ ሓርነት ድሕሪ ምፍጣራ; ኣብ ዝቐጸለ 10 ዓመታት ከቢድ ደማዊ ኩናት ሕድሕድ ዝተራእየሉን ንብረታዊ ቃልሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ’ውን ብኣሉታ ክሸልዎ ዝኸኣለን ተርእዮ እዩ። ኣብ 1981 ድማ ህዝባዊ ግንባር ሓርነት ኤርትራ(ህግሓኤ) ወትሃደራዊ ዓወት ኣብ ልዕሊ ተጋድሎ ሓርነት ኤርትራ(ተሓኤ) ድሕሪ ምጉንጻፍ ብዘይዝኾነ ፖለቲካዊ ፍታሕ ተጋድሎ ሓርነት ኤርትራ መሬት ኤርትራ ገዲፉ ናብ ስደት ኣምሪሑ።

ወላ’ኳ ኤርትራ ካብ ጎበጣ ኢትዮጵያ ብ1991 ነጻ ትውጻእ; እቲ ኣብ 1960ታት ዝጀመረ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ኤርትራውን ግና ዝኾነ ፍታሕ ከይተረኽቦ ኤርትራ ኣብ 1993 ብወግዒ ኣባል ውዱብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ክትከውን ክኢላ። እዚ ተርእዮ እዚ ድማ ነቶም ወትሃደራዊ ደኣምበር ፖለቲካዊ ስዕረት ዘየጋጠሞ ውድብ ተሓኤ ዘጓነየ ብምንባሩ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ኣብ መንጎ ኤርትራውያን መሊሱ ጓህሪ ወሲኹ።

ብ1994 ህግሓኤ ብናይ ውሽጣዊ ውሳነ ናብ ህዝባዊ ግንባር ንዲሞክራስን ፍትሕን (ህግደፍ) ዝብል መንነቱ ዘይተፈልጠ ውድብ ከም ብሓድሽ ተወዲቡ ንኤርትራ ከም እንኮ ፖለቲካዊ ሓይሊ ኮይኑ ድሕሪ ምቁጽጻር፣ ነቲ ካብ 1960ታት ኣትሒዙ  ተላቢዑ ዝነበረ ፖለቲካዊ ምትፍናን ኤርትራውያን ወግዓዊነት ኣልበሶ። ኣብ ውሽጢ ኤርትራ እቲ እንኮ ሓይሊ ብምዃን ንኻልኦት ብፍጹም ብምእጋድ እንሆ ክሳብ ሕጂ ንናይ ኤርትራ ፖለቲካዊ መስርሕ ጅሆ ሒዙ ሓርነት ኤርትራውያን ክውን ከይከውን ጌርዎ ይርከብ። ሎሚ ኤርትራ ኣብ ትሕቲ ገባቲ ፖለቲካዊ ስርዓት ህግደፍ ተቖሪና ትርከብ። ወላኳ እቲ ኣብ 1 መስከረም 1991 ዝጀመረ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ናይ ደገ ሓይሊ ይጀምር፡ እቲ ኣብ 1960ታት ዝጀመረ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ጌና ኣይተዛዘመን።

ብተወሳኺ’ውን ካብ 1991 ዝጀመረ ሰብኣዊን ፖለቲካውን ዓመጽ ኤርትራውያን; ካብ 1993 ኣትሒዙ ኣንጻር ጅሆቫ; ካብ 1995 ድማ ብስም ኣንጻር ግብረ ሽበራ ዝብል ሸፈጥ ወግዓውነት ዝለበሰ ግህሰት መሰል ኤርትራውያን ኣብ ልዕሊ ተኸተልቲ ሃይማኖት ምስልምና፡ ድሒሩ’ውን ብ ግንቦት 2001 ዝጀመረ ምእሳርን ምርሻንን ሰበ ስልጣን ኤርትራ; ምእጋድ ነጻ ፕረስ; ምእጋድ መሰል እምነት; ምእጋድ መሰል ምንቅስቓስ; ግዱድ ዕስክርናን ጉልበታዊ ስራሕን ወዘተ ዝኣመሰሉ፤ እንሆ ሎሚ ኤርትራ ናብ ፍጹም ሰብኣዊ መሰል ዘይብላ ስቅያት ወዲ ሰብ ብኽፉት ዝካየደላ ሃገር ኮይና ትርከብ።

ሎሚ ኤርትራ ዓዲ ግፍዒ እያ ትበሃል። እቲ ኣብ 1960ታት ዝጀመረ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ሎሚ ናብ ቃልሲ ሰብኣዊ መሰላት ዓሪጉ ይርከብ። ሎሚ ኤርትራዊ፥  ፖለቲካዊ መሰል; ዜግነታዊ መሰል; ቁጠባዊ መሰል; ማሕበራዊ መሰል; ባህላዊ መሰል ዘይብሉ ከም ባርያ ኣብ ውሽጥን ኣብ ደገን ከም ዘይፍጡር ወዲ ሰብ ትሕተ-ምንባር ዝኾነ  ሂወት ክነብር ተገዲዱ ኣሎ።

ሓደ መስከረም

ሓደ መስከረም፣ ናይ’ዚ ኩሉ ኣብ ላዕሊ ዝተጠቕሰ ቃልሲ እተዘኻኽረና ኣገዳሲት ታሪኻዊ ዕለት እያ። ሓደ መስከረም ናይ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ መሰረት ኩሉ ኣይነት ቃልሲ እያ። ሓደ መስከረም ብዘይ ምዝካር ዝሓለፈ ኩሉ ዓይነት ቃልሲ ክንዝክር ኣይንኽእልን። ብዘይ ሓደ መስከረም እንገብሮ ዝኾነ ዓይነት ካልሲ መዓዝን ምጥፋ እዩ።

  • ሓደ መስከረም፥  ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ኣንጻር ናይ ደገ ሓይሊ ተዘኻክረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ፖለቲካዊ ቃልሲ ኣብ መንጎ የሕዋት ኤርትራውያን ተዘኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ኤርትራ ካብ ኢትዮጵያ ነጻ ዝወጸትሉ መንገድን መሪር ቃልስን ተዘኻኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ኤርትራ ከም ኤርትራ ክትፍለጥ ዝተኸፍለ መስዋእቲ ተዘኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ቃልሲ ንሓርነት ይጅምር ደኣምበር ከምዘይውዳእ ተዘኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ኩኖ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ሰብኣዊ ቃልሲ ከምዘሎ  ተዘኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ ንቃልሲ ቃልሲ ከምዘድልዮ ተዘኻኽረና።
  • ሓደ መስከረም፥ እንገብሮ ቃልሲ ዓይነቱ ብዘየገድስ ምጅማር ከምዘሎ ተዘኻኽረና።

ስለዚ ሓደ መስከረም ንዓና ንኤርትራውያን መሰረት ኩሉ ክብርታትና  እያ። ብዘይ ሓደ መስከረም ጉዕዞ ንሓርነት ዝበሃል ከምዘየለ እተዘኻኽረና  ፍልይትን ክብርትን ዕለት እያ። ወትሩ ድማ ክትዝከር እያ።

ሓደ መስከረም ወትሩ ተዘከሪ።  

 

 

 

 

Switzerland: Unrefined Gold from Bisha Mining – Eritrea is stashed in Swiss Banks

On 30/08/2017, Swiss News media revealed a secret gold trade activity between Eritrea and Swiss companies. The trade which is reported of being executed from 2011 to 2013 enabled Switzerland to buy 22 tonnes of unrefined gold that costs about 400 million francs. According to the report, it is not known whether the Federal Government of Swiss was aware of the business activity or not.

yearly_purchase

Source: SFR

The report which was made available to public first by Swiss News website called  www.aargauerzeitung.ch in the early afternoon (13:12 European time) and then a TV channel,  SFR, which broadcasted a 10 minutes short documentary has expressed their concern on possible violation of human rights in the site of production and its possible implication in the business.

To watch Full Report, please click here

There are about 32 companies actively engaged in gold trades from Switzerland. Since 2013, they have managed to raise their mining share holdings in the National Swiss National Bank of Silver and Gold Portfolio from USD 500 million to USD 1 billion in 2016.  As shown in figure below, these companies have shown a substanitial increase in their wealth shares.

mining shares SNB

Swiss Gold Trade Companies Mining Share in SNB in 2013 and 2016. (Source: click here)

If we take a closer look, the companies which suceeded in this accumulation of huge money might have benefitted from this secretive gold business activity that might allowed them to save huge money.

Eritrea is accused of forced labour by UN for Human Rights Council for using conscripted soldiers to work in Bisha mining center. In addition to low salary, the environment is not secure to safeguard the well being of the workers and the environment. Currently, Bishing Mining Company is sued by its former employee in Canada.

Swiss Banks have a long history of conducting secret business with PFDJ regime. For example, in 2015, information that was leaked about HSBC revelaed that 32 Eritrean individuals with a savings of more than USD 690 million deposited in the years between 1981 to 2006. 

ሃገረ ስዊዘርላንድ: ልዕሊ 400 ሚልዮን ፍራንክ ዝዋግኡ ዘይተጻረየ ወርቂ ቢሻ ከዚና

ወርቂ ብሻ ካብ 2011 ክሳብ 2013 ዝነበረ ግዜ ብኩባንያታት ዕደና ተዓዲጉ ናብ ስዊዘርላንድ ዝኣተወ ወርቂ ዳግማይ ተጻርዩን ተመስሪሑን ናብ መኽዘናት ባንክ ስዊዘርላንድ  ከምዝተዓቀበ ማዕከናት ዜናን መርበብ ሓበሬታን የቃልዓ ኣለዋ። እዚ ብቋንቋ ጀርመን ኣብ www.aargauerzeitung.ch ብዕለት 30/08/2017 ተጻሒፉ ዝተዘርግሐን ብመልክዕ ዶክመንታሪ ድማ ኣብ መደበር ተለቪዥን  “SRF”  ብዕለት 30/08/2017  ካብ ሰዓት 20፡55 (ብኣቋጻጽራ ኤውሮጳ) ጀሚሩ ዝተፈነወ መደብ ንምስጢራት ንግዲ መዓድናት ኤርትራ የቃልዕ ኣሎ።

ዶክመንቲ ንምርኣይ ኣብዚ ጠውቕ

እዚ ካብ 2011 ኣትሂዙ ብሕቡእ ክግበር ዝጸንሐ ንግዲ 22 ቶን (220 ኩንታል)  ዝኸውን ዋግኡ ድማ ልዕሊ 400 ሚልዮን ፍራንክ (ናይ ስዊዘርላንድ ባጤራ) ዝግመት ብዝተፈላለያ ኩባንያታት ስዊዘርላን ከምዝተዓደገን ነቲ ወርቂ ዳግማይ ብምጽራይ ድማ ብልዑል መኽሰብ ኣብ ባንክታት ስዊዝ ይኽዘን ከምዝጸንሐን ዝተዘርግሐ ሓበሬታ የመልክት።

ኣብ ዕደና ወርቂ ዝነጥፋ ኩባንያታት ስዊዝ ልዕሊ 32 ከምዘለዋ; ካብ 2013 ኣትሒዘን ድማ ልዕሊ 1 ቢልዮን ዶላር( USD 1 Billion) ዋግኡ ዝግመት ናይ ዕደና ብርክታት (mining shares) ኣብ ማዕከን ወርቅን ነሓስን  ዝኾነ ሃገራዊ ባንክ ስዊዝ ሸፊነን ከምዘለዋ Smaulgld ዝተባህለ መርበብ ኢንተርነት ይሕብር። ሃገራዊ ባንክ ስዊዝ ናይ 2013 ዕቑር ወርቅን ነሓስን ዝነበሮ 500 ሚልዮን ዶላር ዝግመት፣ ኣብ’ዚ ግዜ’ዚ ብርክታቱ ናብ ልዕሊ 1 ቢልዮን ዶላር ከደይቦ ክኢሉ ኣሎ።

mining shares SNB

ብርክታት ኩባንያታት ስዊዘርላንድ ኣብ ሃገራኤ ባንክ ስዊዝ  ናይ 2016 ብመንጽር 2013 (ምንጪ፡ Smaulgld)bisha_mining

ዝተጻረየ ወርቂ (ምንጪ ስእሊ: GOLDCORP SWITZERLAND GMBH)  

ኣብ’ዚ ሓጺር ግዜ ዘኻዕበቶ ምጣኔ ሃብቲ ኣገናዚብካ ዕደና ወርቂ ብሻ ቀንዲ ምንጪ ሃብቲ ናይ”ዘን ኣብ ሃገራዊ ባንኪ ስዊዝ ብርክታት ዝውንና ኩባንያትት ክኸውን ዘለዎ ዓቢይ ተኽእሎ ኣሎ።

ባንክታት ስዊዝ ብስቱር ምስ ህግደፍ ዝገብርኦ ንግዲ ናይ ነዊሕ ሰረት ዘለዎ  እዩ። ንኣብነት፤ ኣብ 2015 ዝወጸ ምስጢር ከምዝሕብሮ ብስም 32 ኤርትራውያን መንነቶም ዘይተፈልጠ ብስም ውልቀ ሰባት ልዕሊ 690 ሚልዮን ዶላር ኣብ HSBC ዝተባህለ ባንክ ስዊዝ  ካብ 1981 ክሳብ 2006 ዝተቐመጠ ምስጢራዊ ገንዘብ ከምዝተረኽበ ተቓሊዑ ኔሩ። ክሳብ እዚ ሰዓት እዚ ኸኣ ዝኾነ ወግዓዊ ሓላፍነት ዝወሰደ ዝሕብር ሓበሬታ የሎን።

 

 

ጥንታውያን ጣዖታት ግብጺ ከም ተራ ቃላት ኣብ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ

ነቲ ንፈልጦስ ማዕረ ክንደይ ኮን ንፈልጦ ንኸውን?

1. በዓል

በዓል ልደት

በዓል ፋሲካ

በዓል ቅዱስ ዮውሃንስ

በዓልቲ ቤተይ

በዓል ቤትካ

በዓል ናጽነት. . . ወዘተ

2. ኣቱም

ኣቱም ሰብኣይ

ኣቱም ሰብ ቀደም

ኣቱም የሕዋት/ኣሓት. . . ወዘተ.

3. ኣሜን

ጎይታ ይባረኽ – ኣሜን

ስምካ ይቀደስ – ኣሜን. . . ወዘተ.

4. መዓት

መዓት ወሪዱና

መዓት መጺኡኒ

መዓት እዮም ኔሮም. . . ወዘተ.

ነዘን ኣርባዕተ ኣብ ላዕሊ ተጠቒምናለን ዘለዋ ከም በዓል፣ ኣቱም፣ ኣሜንን መዓትን ዝብላ ቃላት ኣብ መዓልታዊ ዝርርብ ኮነ ስነ ጽሑፍ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ብብዝሒ ካብ ንጥቅመለንን ዝውቱራትን  ከምኡ ድማ ኣዝየን ኣገደስት እየን። ኪኖ ተራ ቃላት ሓሊፈን’ውን ንፍሉይ ኣጋጣሚታትን ትሕትናዊ ኣገላልጻን የገልግላ።

ከም ሓቂ እዘን ቃላት እንክድመጻ ዝኾነ ሰማዒ ብፍሉይ ኣተኩሮ እዩ ኣቓልቦ ዝገብረለን። ንኣብነት: በዓል-ልደት ኣብ ኣመንቲ ክርስትና ፍሉይ መዓልቲ እዩ። በዓል/ቲ ቤተይ ክንብል ከለና ድማ ንኽልተ ብሓባር ዝነብሩ መጻምዲ ዘገልግል ፍሉይ መግለጺ እዩ።

ንምዃኑ ከም’ዞም ኣብ ላዕሊ ተጠቒሶም ዘለው ቅላት ክንጥቀም ከለና  በቲ ሓቅስ እንታይ ኮን ኢና ንብል ዘለና? ስም ሓያላት ጥንታውያን ኣማልኽቲ ግብጺ ንጽውዕ ከም ዘለናስ ማዕረ ክንደይ ፈሊጥናዮ ንህሉ? እዞም ሎሚ ኣብ ሓደ ኣምላኽ ንኣምን ዝብሉ ተዛረብቲ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ቀደም ዘመን ክንደይ ኣማልኽቲ ኔሮሞም ኮን ይኾኑ? ዝብሉ ብቐሊሉ መልሲ ዘይርከበሎም ብዙሓት ሕቶታት ተደርዲሮም ይርከቡ።

ቋንቋ ትግርኛ  ኣስማት ጣኦታት ከም ተራ ቃላት ወሲዱ ክጥቀመሎም ክትርኢ; እዋእ እዚ ህዝቢ በቲ ቀደም ዘመን ኣምላኺ ጣዖታት እዩ ኔሩ ማለት ድዩ ክትብል ትግደድ። ብሓቂ ድማ ክኸውን ኣለዎ። ነዚ ሓቅነት ከልብስዎ ዝኽእሉ ብዙሓት ኣሰራት ኣለዉ። ንኣብነት፥ መንግስቲ ዝብል ቃል ከም ዝውቱር ንሓደ ዓለማዊ ስልጣን ሒዙ ንህዝቢ ዘመሓድር ኣካል የስምዕ። በቲ ሓደ ድማ መንግስቲ ኣምላኽ ዝብል ፍሉይ መጸውዒ በቲ ልዑል ናይ ልዑላን ሰማያዊ መንግስቲ ዝፍለጥ መንግስቲ የመልክት። እቲ ጸገም ዝፍጠር ነቲ ዓለማዊ መንግስቲ ናይ’ዛ ምድሪ ከኣሊ ስለዝቑጸር ኣዝዩ ክቡርን ዘይድፈርን ከም’ኡ ድማ ከም’ቲ መንግስቲ ኣምላኽ ዘለኣለማዊ ዝኾነ፣ ናይ’ዛ ምድራዊ መንግስቲ ነባሪ ይቑጸር።  ስለ’ዝኾነ ድማ ዝኾነ በዓል ስልጣን እምብረ መጠን ክብረ ልዕልና ይውሃብ። እዚ ድማ ነቶም ዓመጽቲ ገዛእቲ ዘይተኣደነ ተድላ እዩ።

ስለ’ዚ እቶም፥ ንጥቀመሎም ቃላት ብልክዕ ምስ ዘይንፈልጦም ካብ ዝህብዎ ኣገልግሎት ዘውርድዎ ዕንወት ክበዝሕ ይኽእል። ስለምንታይሲ ከይተረድኣና እቲ መሰረታዊ ትርጉሞም ብተዘዋዋሪ መንገዲ ንጥቀመሎም ክንህሉ ስለንኽእል። ስለ’ዚ መሰረታት ቋንቋ ምጽናዕ መወዳድርቲ የብሉን።

በዓል፣ ኣቱም፣ ኣሜንን መዓትን፥ እቶም ሓያላት ኣማልኽቲ ግብጻውያን

ቃላት መሰረት ናይ ሓደ ቋንቋ እዮም። መቦቆላዊ ምንጪ ናይ’ዞም መሰረት ናይ ቋንቋ ዝኾኑ ቃላት ክትፈልጥ ድማ ሰፊሕ መጽናዕትን ምርምርን ከም’ዘድሊ ክኢላታት ናይ’ዚ ዓውዲ ይሕብሩ። ሓሓንሳብ ጊና ብወዝቢ ጎፍ ዝብሉኻ ተረኽቦታት ኣይስኣኑን።

ንመጀመርታ ግዜ ኣብ መሰረታዊ መቦቆል ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ኣድህቦ ክገብር ዝደረኸኒ ጸሓፍን ፍላስፋን ኣማኑኤል ሳህለ ናብ ሓዳስ ኤርትራ ዝጸሓፋ ጽሕፍቲ አያ ዝነበረት። ወላ’ኳ ዕለቱ ብልክዕ ኣይዘክሮ ከባቢ 2005 ከም’ዝነበረ ግና ቅሩብ ይስወጠኒ። ኣብ’ታ ጥንታውያን ኣማልኽት፣ መናፍስቲ፣ ደቂ ሕድርትናን ልምድታትን ህዝቢ አምባታት መጠራን ከስከሰን ብመልክዕ ፋንታዝያዊ ቀሪባ ብጉሩም ቃላት ዝወቀበት ንኡስ ጽሕፍቲ ብዛዕባ “በዓል” እተስተማቕር ጽሕፍቲ ነበረት።

እዛ ጽሕፍቲ ኣዝያ ስለዝመሰጠትኒ ብዛዕባ ጥንታውያ ኣማልኽቲ ዘለኒ ኣፍልጦ ከዕቢ ዝሕግዙኒ ጽሑፋት ሕልፍ እናበልኩ የንብብ እየ። ንኣብነት ኣብ 2007 ዘንበብክዋ “Gods of Ancient Egypt”; ኣብ ግብጺ ብዙሓት መላእኽቲ ከምዝነበሩ ክመሃር ክኢለ።

ካብ’ዞም ብዙሓት ኣማልኽቲ፥ ኣርባዕተ ኣብ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ከም ተራ ቃላት ዓቢይ ቦታ ሒዞም ምስ ረኸብክዎም ተገረምኩ።

ንምዃኑ እዞም ኣማልኽቲ መን እዮም?

1. በዓል – Ba’al

Baal_egyptian_godኣምላኽ ኩነታት ኣየርን ፍርያምነትን ተባሂሉ ዝፍለጥ ዝነበረ ባዓል፣ ሓደ ካብቶም ኣዝዮም ፍሉጣት ኣማልኽቲ ግብጻውያን እዩ ዝነበረ። ኣብ ገለ ክፋል ግዜ ውን ቋንቋ ሄብርው ስም ናይ ኣምላኽ – የሀወህ ጌሩ ይጥቀመሉ ኔይሩ።

በዓል ኣብ ልዕሊ ንፋሳት፣ በርቂ፣ ነጎዳ፣ ዝናብን ፍርያምነትን ፍሉይ ሓይሊ ከምዝነበሮ የእመነሉ።

Ba’al Hammon – እዚ ሎሚ ግዜ ኣብ ቋንቋ ትግርኛ ብፍሉይ ወንኻ ዝሰለበ; በዓል ሕማመይ; ኢልና እንጠቀመሉ ኣገላልጻ መሰረቱ ምስ  ኣምላኽ ጣዖት በዓል ዝተኣሳሰር ኮይኑ ትርጉሙ ድማ “ኣምላኽ ፍርያምነት” ማለት እዩ።

ሓደ ሰብ, ናይ ሕማመይ እንተኢሉ ናይ ፍርያምነተይ እዩ ዘስምዕ።

 

2. ኣቱም – Atum

Atumኣቱም ማለት እቲ ኩሉ ዝፈጥር ኣምላኽ ማለት እዩ። ኣቱም ንባዕሉ ካብ ወላ ሓደ  ከምዘይተፈጥረ ይእመነሉ። ድሕሪ ፍጥረቱ ድማ ነቶም ናይ መጀመርታ ሹን (Shu) ተፍኑትን(Tefnut) ዝበሃሉ ኣማልኽቲ ካብ ምራቑ ፈጠረ።

ኣቱም፥ ኣምላኽ ናይ ኩሎም ኣማልኽቲ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ እንኮላይ ኣምላኽ ናይ ፈርዖናት ግብጺ ነበረ። “ወዲ ኣቱም” ዝብል ድማ ኣብ ኩሎም ሰም ነገስታት ይውሰኽ ነበረ።

መበቆል ናይ ኣቱም ድማ ትም ዝብል ቃል ግብጻውያን ኮይኑ ናይ መወዳእታ ማለት እዩ።

 

3. ኣሜን – Amen, Amun, Amkon

Amenኣሜን ርእሲ ጣዖት ቴባን  (Theban diety) ከምዝነበረ ይዝንቶ። ተበን ሓንቲ ካብ ገጠር ዓዲ ናብ ኣዝያ ሓያልን ዓባይን ከተማ ንግስነት ዝተቐየረት ነበረት። ኣሜን ድማ ንግሶም ነበረ። ኣሜን ድሕሪ ናብ ስልጣን ምምጽኡ ምስቲ ኣብቲ ግዜ ዝነበረ መልኣኾም, Ra, ስሙ ብምጥባቕ Amun-Ra ብዝብል ኣምላኽ ናይ ኩሎም መላእኽቲ ኮነ።

ትርጉሙ ድማ: “እቲ ስዉር; ምስጢራዊ ምስሊ” ማለት እዩ። እቲ ሓቀኛ መንነቱ ድማ ፈጺሙ ዘይግለጽ ተባሂሉ ይግለጽ ነበረ።

 

4. መዓት – Ma’at

Captureመዓት ስብኣዊ ምስሊ ኣምላኽ ናይ ሓቂ፣ ሚዛን፣ ስርዓት፣ ስኒት፣ ሕጊ፣ ሞራልን ፍትሕን የመልክት። ካብ ኣምላኽ ክብሃል ድማ ዝያዳ መግለጺ ባህርያት ክበሃል ይከኣል።

መዓት ንጠፈጥሮን ሕብረሰብን የመልክት ነበረ።

ብግብጻውያን መዓት ከም መግለጺ ስነ-ምግባርን ሞራላውን ዜጋታት ይጥቀምሉ ነበሩ። እዚ ድማ ሓደ ግብጻዊ ኣብ ሂወቱ ምሉእ ክኽተሎ ዝነበሮ መንገዲ የስተምህር። ንስድራ ቤት፣ ሕብረተ-ሰብ፣ ሃገር፣ ኣከባብን ኣማልኽትን ብእኽብሪ ከገልግሉ ድማ ይኹስኩስ።

መደምደምታ

ካብ’ዚ ንኡስ ጽሑፍ ክንመሃሮ ዝከኣል እንተሃልዩ ቋንቋ ትግርኛን ተዛረብቲ ቋንቋ ትግርኛን ምስ ጥንታዊ ቋንቋ ግብጺ ወይ ፈርዖናት ብዙሕ ምትእስሳር ክህልዎ ይኽእል እዩ። ከም ታሪኽ’ውን እዚ ሎሚ ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ዝቕመጥሉ ዘለው ኣከባቢ ምድረ ፑንቲ ተባሂሉ ክምዝፍለጥን ፈርዖናት ግብጺ ይበጽሕዎ ከምዝነበሩ ይዝንቶ።