PFDJ is a Male Chauvinist political organization: The case of Eritrean Women

A news report of November 20, 2017 published in the only existing Eritrean news has brought into my attention what I was thinking about the PFDJ nature of male chauvinism. The report, as given below, reports that a conference was held in Massawa to discuss about women in general and women students in particular about mesntrual cycle related topics such how to deal with psychological stresses and hygiene related issues during menstrual.

The conference was held based on a research findings about Problems and Challenges women during menstrual cycle. The research was conducted in 10 schools scattered around the country,

The conference was held in corporation with the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and other stakeholders[though not mentioned, they are PFDJ members, Administrators, and Ministry of defence].

women in Eritrea

What strucked my attention is about the participants. It was not a surprise but a revelation about the nature of PFDJ control power. Though the objective of the conference was about women issues, those who participated in the conference are dominated by men. Only 13 women were present among 30 men. It is almost 3 men to 1 woman ratio.

This is not abnormal under PFDJ rule. No one has a power to talk about his cause. PFDJ appointed officers talk on behalf of everybody. What makes it disturbing is PFDJ has so many promotions on securing women rights.

Eritrea is accused of committing rape and sexual harrassement to its women citizens which may be amounted to crimes against humanity. Yemane Gebremeskel, Director of Presidential Office and Minister of Information, once said, “rape, like many parts of the world, happens here and there.”

Women are not free to fight for their rights. The only women association that exists in Eritrea is under full control of PFDJ political office. Even in high UN meetings, Eritrean women are accompanied by men who talk on their behalf. For example, in this photo, Ambassador Ghirma Asmeron and UNDP representative in Eritrean were talking on behalf of Eritrean women delegates.

eritrean women in UN

Eritrean women were the main actors during the armed struggle for liberation making more than 30% of the over all fighters. They were supposed to secure a right place by having equal power as men. Unfortunately, 26 years after independence, they are even unable to talk about their most striking natural issues.

On behalf, they are dominated by male chauvinists. Men decide what is right for them and what should do in their life, including their biological nature.


Voice of Liberal Democrats: Why Liberal Democracy is the best option for Eritrea and Eritreans? (Part I)

It is not a surprise if I can claim that I am the first Eritrean who is openly advocating for Liberal Democracy political philosophy to reign over Eritrea and Eritrean mindset by replacing the most barbaric, totalitarian and inhumane political ideology of PFDJ.

I am also a self-proclaimed Liberal Democrat who is working to inject Liberal democratic values in the Eritrean political landscape and gradually to be the strong foundational guiding principles of Eritrean democratic state.

I came long way to claim Liberal Democracy to be my political guidelines after years of struggle with my mind to liberate from PFDJ imposed mindset. It is no wonder that I started my public political activism by writing a series of three articles that focus on PFDJ political ideology and PFDJites mindset. These articles were published at in the year of 2014 and can be found here:

  1. Rule of the Jungle and a Quest of PFDJ Mindset(Part I)
  2. Rule of the Jungle and a Quest of PFDJ Mindset (Part II)
  3. Rule of the Jungle and my Quest to PFDJ Mindset (Part III)

These articles are produced based on my own experiences under the PFDJ Regime. And from 2014 until 2016, I spent my time and energy figting against PFDJ political thinking through a fearless arguments now documented in Disqus.  Most of the arguments were trying to expose how PFDJ systems works. My argument was centered on demolishing PFDJ as a system.

But there was one missing element, the element that I had no idea but a wish. Many people including myself were asking, “how to demolish it and what tools we have to replace it?” Some people were constantly pushing the strategy that we have to weed-out PFDJ and replace with one that can fulfill our long march to freedom.

I was not in hurry to propose a strategy. My argument was,,’to have an effective strategy we need a strong political ideology otherwise it will be reformation of the system without destroying the ideology.” My reasoning was:

  • Activities/events come from projects
  • Projects come from Programs
  • Programs come from Strategies
  • Strategies come from policies.
  • Strategy comes from plans
  • Plans come from policies
  • Policies come from objectives
  • objectives come from goals
  • Goals come from missions
  • Mission comes from Vision
  • VISION comes from an IDEOLOGY
  • IDEOLOGY comes from a philosophy(political).
  • And Philosophy comes from Human Being.


After framing my thinking in this clear way, I went on contemplating what political philosophy should I comes with so that I can have a clear vision about Eritrea. By doing so, after more than three years of reading and contemplating, I finally met face to face with Liberal Democracy.

Barak Obama has lots of impact to come out with political thinking. And later on, it during the French 2017 Presidential campaign that I came to know what liberal values are through the hard fought campaign of Emmanuel Macron. Readings about French revolution and its 1789 declaration of Human and Citizen Rights and well as the UN 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights have also profoundly shaped my thoughts to center my political thinking on Human Being. 

Now, I am the first Eritrean Liberal Democrat.

To introduce you why I have embraced Liberal Democracy as my political philosophy and why I believe it is the best option we have to liberate Eritrea and Eritreans from the chains of PFDJ Ideology and nationalistic mindset of most Eritreans, I will try to develop it fully in the ndxt to be published articles.

Voice of the self-Proclaimed Liberal Democrat 

Language Issue: An outdated and old fashioned Political Debate

In this modern day, language is NO MORE an issue. It is an outdated debate. What you need is interpreters(even a computer program is doing this service). Then, anyone can speak in a language that he masters. And listeners can switch the language they want.

We are living in the IT era.

Personally, I have excluded the language issue from my political argument. It is old politics.

As a human right advocator, I believe everybody’s choice of using a language that he/she can master.

And any official publication, state publication, must be produced in all languages at the time of release.

For this, what we need is establishing strong institutions who specialize in languages.

Even if there is a langage that is spoken by a single person or small number of people, they have a right to be educated and read official publications using their own language. And this is one of human rights aspect.

I can not excuses on experts. The state has an obligation to respect and protect the rights of every citizen citizen.

Radio Jahray: Fearless Voice of the Voiceless Eritreans

When there is freedom, the is a voice. When there is no freedom, there is a voice but is silent. That is why we are voice of the voiceless people.

It is this simple mission, being voice of the voiceless people that is keeping us fighting against those who oppress our freedom.

Eritrean people are denied their freedom by one of the most notorious brutal regime of 21thC, called PFDJ. everyone is forced to be silent and left to live in giant state prison. Nothing is coming out from and going in to this country.

And those who managed to escape this police state, the first thing is to search protection. Once protected, different paths are followed. Some simply keep quite while others speak out. And very brave and courageous people speak out for those who are still living in the condition they left.

One of these brave and courageous people is Abdu Mohammed. Abdu is one of the founders of the only radio program that broadcasts in Bilen language inside Eritrea. he worked for this radio for 15 years before he finally left the country for good. After he asked for an asylum in Switzerland, he did not keep his voice to be silent. He started to contribute to an online Blina radio program stationed in USA. 

I have no detailed information what motivates him to leave that radio and start a new radio broadcast of his own. But I suspect that he wanted to be more free to voice his own voice freely. He has all the talents and gifts to produce noble articles.

Abdu is the co-founder among 10 founders and the main contributor to radio Jahray. This radio is revolutionalizing communication approach. Mr. Abdu has succeeded to attract like minded people who are highly educated  and critical to dissiminate fearless messages on behalf of the voiceless Eritreans.

Though Radio Jahray uses Bilen language, its message is universal and is voicing on behalf of Eritreans. Every Eritrean who listens Bilen language will find this program unique in its approach and content. Its contents are diverse and upto date.

I am a contributor to this program. And my focus is on human rights. I write articles based my own experiences and enrich them with world literature to fit Eritrean situation.

You can check my contribution starting from 20:00

I encourage every Eritrean to listen this program.

To be the voice of the voiceless is not an easy task. But there is always someone who voices the voice of the voiceless people.

At individual level, many are doing it. When a group of people or society come together to voice their voiceless voice, it becomes so strong.

This is what Radio Jahray is doing.

I will write more detailed analysis about Radio programs that are broadcasting in Bilen language. This article is a short essay directed for public awareness. I hope I will come with more insight information from the two radio programs that are currently targeting Bilen speakers.

Radio Jahray is A Swiss based online radio program that is broadcasting its program using Bilen language. It has about 6000 listeners. 

Standing Against School Punishment: The beginning of my Struggle for “Human Rights”

Fresh Memories from my Elementary School

During my elementary school, I attended a Catholic School in my home town. It was the best school that has shaped my life unil today. The school had excellent teaching methods and discipline was always strict.

What I experienced in this school has in many ways shaped my life.From this school, I have learned compassion, kindness, love, charity, fear of God, forgiveness, competition, self-discipline, toughness, believing on what you stand for, perfection, struggle for your own rights, wisdom and righteousness. To summarised it, it was all about giving what you have.

I remember going to the school with empty stomach because we had nothing to eat at home. At school, we had biscuits and sometimes breakfasts. Because my family can not afford it, I barely paid my school fees. I had to register on loan bases which I was always exempted every new academic year.

This is my general good memories, there was also moments that I stood for my rights and the school did not forced me to obey.

The event

I still remember vividly what happened to me in my 3rd year grade elementary school. A Catholic priest whipped me 12 times in my bare white hand(6 each) simply because I didn’t attend the church evening program. It was so paining but I didn’t cry. Normally, I don’t cry when I am hurted phsyically. What makes me to cry is when my heart is hurted so deeply or when I see human suffering.

What happened to me in my early school years had forced me to question the priest’s authority. I asked, “why I am supposed to go to the church if this priest is going to punish me like this just for not attending?” And then, I quited going to the church for the next three years stay at the Catholic School. I never attended any church program and no one asked then again.

I think they understood what they did to me.My family are from Orthodox. I used this as a cover for not attending Catholic church programs. And thanks God, they didn’t insist me to attend. It is only after my university study that I thought it is good if I go back to the church. And at my wedding day, I reconciled to become a member of the catholic church. Sorry I didn’t confess about this. I think the priest who did this to me has to confess not me.

I could say, this single event forced me to stay away from the church for such a long time, though I was attending occasionally whenever I need to attend.

Since after, I didn’t like any teacher who punsihed me physically. And in general, I had very rare disciplinary mistakes at school.

The Struggle

I could say, this single event that happened at school was the beginning of my fight against inhumane treatment. At the age of 9, I was able to stand for my rights. The school did not forced me to attend church programs. I think it was out of full respect. And I finished my elementary school peacefully without any church interference.


Standing for your rights is deep within every human being. The only difference is whether you are passive or active about it. The majority are passive until they are fully aware about their mistreatement. For this, we need to raise people’s consciousness so that we can ALL STAND TOGTHER in Unity. Together, we can end human rights violations.


Political Dialogue with Bright Future Eritrea Movement’s Member – Tesfa Tesfagerghis


It was on 25/09/2017. It was a long day. Not because it is long than before but I have to wait a comment from my friend Tesfa Tesfagerghis. Tesfa is member of one now evolving radicalist movement that does not recognize Eritrea’s sovereignity, called Bright Future Eritrea. This radicalist movement has dismissed openly Eritrea’s 30 years armed struggle simply by claiming it was all led by Eritrea’s Peoples Liberation Front(EPLF). Though they are loud to undo Eritrea’s historical discourse by negating it as a “Bandit’s history”, they are not shy to express what their mission is in their newly established movement. what they are advocating is that Eritreans should be given a chance to conduct referendum and decide whether they can join Ethiopia or stay as independent country.

In a recent inteview conducted between leaders of Bright Future Eritrea’s Movement (BFEM) and Aiga Forum from Ethiopia, they said that Eritreans are brothers with Tigrians(Tigray region of Ethiopia settlers) and share the same identity. And the primary mission of BFEM to establish a transitional government of Eritrea by removing PFDJ(They identify it as EPLF) and conduct referendum.

One of the strategy they are using is negationism tactics of Eritrean history. And to insert the word ‘Eritrea”, they claim that they recognize Eritrea of 1890 and then reject Eritrea’s sovereign state.

Though they tried to camouflage themselves as human Rights advocaters, their public seminars shows otherwise. It is not easy to define their political ideology. However, many of their documents is showing that they are in favour of integrating Eritrea with Ethiopia. And their central claim is “Identity Lineage”.

A similar but purely ‘Fascist” movement called Aga’azian Movement has similar argument for their movement based on identity. But Aga’azians differs from Bright Future Movement as its intention is to create a state called “Aga’azian State” by combining Orthodox Highlanders of Eritrea and Tigray region.

To understanding their thinking I decided to engage Tesfa Tesfagerghis when he posted a provocative statement in his facebook page (as shown in Figure below). The discussion was from amateurish perspective. And what is written is not purely from a political stance. It is mainly an opinionated discussion to understand members thinking.

Bright Future_Tesfa

Objective of this Article

This dialogue will be the first to be addressed to challenge Bright Future Eritrea Movement and defeat their political  endevour that is galloping without check and balance. I believe that this movement is un-Eritrean and has no interest on Eritrean people. It’s mission is either to unite Eritrea with Ethiopia or create Tigray-Tigrigni State of Tigrigna Speaking people of the horn.

Therefore, it is my responsibility to expose such dangerious ideas. No matter how bitter humanitarian crisis we are passing through, we can not forget who we are. Eritrea is an independent and sovereign country. Any attempt that undermines this sovereignity is against rule of law. This international sovereignity law is guaranteed both by Eritrean people and international community. Ignoring this law is ignoring the people who are protected by the law.

On this occasion, I call BFEM to respect rule of law – the law of a sovereign land. If even BFEM dismisses 1993 Referendum result, Eritrean people will not, so are the international community. At least, tt is for good if this movement respects the sovereignity of Eritrea.


ብሩህ መጻኢ ማዕሪ ህግ ተፈሊጣ ኣላ! እቲ ዘሐጉስ ግን ኣንጻር ሽፍታ ህግ ጠጠዉ ምባላ እዩ!!!


(Bright Future is equally famed as EPLF! The good thing is it has stood against EPLF). Tesfa Tesfagerghis

Discussion Commences

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Tesfie, tsibuq heray yimeliala ske (Translated: Tesfa – Good and I wish it will be as you claim).

Kihateka gina (May I ask you?):

Beyenay meday eya maere hizbawi Ginbar tefelita zela (In what sense is Bright Future is equally famed as that of EPLF?).

Maere entekoynu, maere slezikones keyetehasasibeni ayterefen (If they are equally famed, it has left me wondering).

Kemeysi – hizba Ginbar bchikanen ghset sebuawi meselatn kab alem tefelitu eyu zelo (Because, EPLF is a brutal regime who is known to the world for its crimes against humanity).

Abrah rih abilelna (Could you clarify it please).

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

let me try to answer your questions:

BF is known well for its stand against the bandits that are still destroying our country, our people. In the social media, as you daily see it, BF is the prime enemy of all those ‘called’ oppositions. It looks like that they are not worried​ about EPLF, which is constantly dehumanising their people. Well, I label to some as people with Stockholm syndrome​.

BF is known, at the moment, equally to the Eritreans who are residing either in Eritrea or abroad. They are also hopeful that BF emancipate them from all the sufferings. So, BF is known for its good intentions that are openly vocalised by its members.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Thank you Tesfa for your brief answer. Of course you didn’t answer my original question but it is OK. Let me move on.

You said, “called” oppositions. Could you please clarify it as it could be negative in most cases.

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

How could we have opposition party abroad? We all agree that Eritrea does not have constitution, meaning that we cannot have opposition, president, flag, •••••

Now we have those self proclaimed opposition. I don’t understand that. Their gathering should be encouraged but informing the people in the diaspora as opposition is misleading and should be stopped.

Forming an opposition abroad is like recognising the bandits as executives. You can not have such without having constitution.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Kkk, as expected and of course negative conception and misleading.

Can you define to me what opposition means?

And can you explain to me what is Bright Future in accordance to its activity?

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

I think you misunderstood me. I am sure that you are not asking me for the literal meaning of opposition.

BF is not an opposition political party. It is a revolutionary movement. And it will not stand as an opposition or leading party. ELF was not a political party. It was a revolution with intention to remove foreign forces from Eritrea.

BF is set to remove EPLF.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Very good.

Then, what is the fate of those you identify themsemves as “opposition forces” that you or BF call them ” called” Opposition?

Isn’t it this same identification the same used by PFDJ to those who stand againts it?

And what makes BF to be different from PFDJ in this regard?

If BF is not giving recognition to those who identify themselves as “opposition”, is it that simple to be recognized in response?

Can I conclude also those “called’ opposition, as you are calling it, are targets of BF?

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

Let me rephrase my wording. Those so called opposition political parties are not BF enemies, rather advocates of BF.

We also have been calling them to join us and remove EPLF, then form transitional government. Within the transitional period, all those with ambition of forming a recognised political party should vote on forming committee​ to draft constitution and the temporarily amalgamated groups to vote on each article. However, BF has come with precondition that the government to be set has to be secular. BF won’t marge with EPLF ideology, majority domination, or religion domination.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Tesfa Tesfagerghis good.

Ok you have a pre-condition. It is good to learn about it.

Of course, you can paraphrase, clarify, whatever you can. Still I see the void.


Let me keep on asking.

  1. What type of secularism are you advocating?
  2. Why you are calling them to join you? Isn’t wiser to be a part than a caller Remember EPLF has always called other parties to join it. History is good to learn from.
  3. Why BF considers the opposition groups as advocators of BF works? Can we conclude that BF is not an independent movement if it relies on other advocates works?
  4. Just for clarification though you have said it:

Does BF consider the opposition as equal shareholders or just advocates for BF?

I appreciate your kind response

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

Sorry for the delayed response:&
You still see ‘void’ somewhere. But I have tried my best.

  1. Secular government:
    a. Religion won’t take place in country matters, mainly in decision making, drafting and implementing constitution of the future Eritrea. However, religions will be guided and regulated, which will be clearly stipulated on Bill of Rights.
    b. There will be no ‘minority or majority rule’ approach. One persons rights are valued, and the constitution should protect that person within limits of the set.
  2. BF is calling all groups called opposition political parties to work with us in removing EPLF. As I said it before, BF is not a political party. It has no agenda of forming a coalition with any single political party. However, members are allowed to join them, preferably after setting up a transitional govt and drafting constitution. BF does not have problem with Kunama and Afar movement. They are movement and it is more likely that we all marge. 
  3. BF sees the opposition parties as advocates. Currently they have forgotten their ‘enemy’ hgdf. Their target is BF. BF is ‘damaging’ their heroic events before 1991. BF has put it clear that all what happened, mainly by EPLF (with evidence), was human destruction. There was no heroic act that we can prove it to the mass. So, I call them advocates of BF by default. They are not doing it intentionally. And, this won’t make BF as ‘scavengers’. I see a lot of people, who are not members of BF, working for BF tirelessly. I thank all of them as I do to the ‘opposition parties’.4. OP are not share holders of BF at the moment. We have to see their willingness to work with us. You, Tes are an advocate for BF. But I am not sure if you arw aware of that. As a result, you won’t claim a thing for your good contribution.Therefore, shareholders are those who have signed to be members.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Thanks Tesfa Tesfagerghis you know that I am a liberal democrat. And according to my political philosophy, I am guided by transparency and democratic engagement. If this helps BF, good.

Ok. Good trial.

Let me ask you more:

  1. You said that BF wants to see a secular state. Then, you said “religions will be guided and regulated” Do you believe on Freedom to beliefs? And if you are going to regulate them, what makes you different than PFDJ?
  2. What do you mean by “limits of set?” Are you going to limit individuals freedom? If you put limits, what makes you different than PFDJ?
  3. Ok, you removed “…”. Is it intentional?Why you were using the quotation mark before?PFDJ does not consider itself as a political party. And you are claiming the same. What is then your difference. Remember, PFDJ stands for People’s Front FOR Democracy and Justice”.

    And PFDJ believes itself as a transitional government. And you are claiming to do the same.

    Well, I know your claim is to conduct referendum to decide Eritrea’s Future, henc, Bright Future. Is the referendum of 1993 invalid according to BF manifesto?

    4. Can I conclude that BF is benefitting Opposition’s advocacy?

    Forget about heroic achievements now as you have no concrete definition of your own.

    Do you recognize May 24, 1991 achievements?

    Do you recognize Eritrea’s Sovereignity that was recognized by the 1993 Referendum Act and UN’s recognition of Sovereign Eritrea?

    5. Are you willing to work with OP?

    Are you ready with party that wants a non-sectarian state?

    Thank you for your kind response.

Tesfa Tesfagerghis

  1. Responding;
    Yes, I agree on the Freedom to beliefs. No should be forced to believe in any religion. It should be the goodwill of that particular. Regulate: Religions should not invade peoples’ private life. There should be consent from the person whom someone wants to recruit. 
  2. Limits: An individual should be protected by the constitution. But, when those with needs of protection exceeds the resources, NGOs and foreign countries should be consulted. Then, rights of the individuals can be guarantied.Rights of individuals are with responsibilities. A person who demanding rights while violating rights of his neighbour should be rehabilitated. If you remember freedom of expression incidents in Ethiopia recently, the people,violated their rights. Some of them had guns.EPLF does not have constitution for the people. U should know by now that EPLF and BF are on two different ends.

    3 Inverted comas are used when you don’t recognise as such. It should be a mistake anyway.

    PFDJ claims as the party for the country. You may correct me if they are not political party. However, I said that BF is a movement, just as Jebha። Jebha was,not political pary.

    3. Referendum was conducted in 1993 and none of us have a problem with that. But, should BF give credit to EPLF? No! EPLF had no intention of separating Eritrea from Ethiopia. They only had power sharing problem. Meaning that referendum could have been done long time ago if the bandits hadn’t been formed.

    4. Yes, BF is benefiting advocacy from opposition. No comment on that.

    BF does not recognise any claims of heroism.

    We recognise Eritrea the one from 1890.

    6. Yes, we are ready to work with Op. But, I am not sure to which you are referring by stating non-sectarian state.

    This is all I have good nt.

Tesfabirhan REDIE

Thank you Tesfa Tesfagerghis. So far so good.


Let me continue asking you

1. You said “we” does it represent BF views or all you are writing here are just your own opinions?

If it is your opinion, please use “I”. Just a friendly advice in order to avoid confusion.

2. You said again, “religionq should not onvade people’s private life.

Then, do you mean there will be state intervention?

Are you still supportive of state regulations on religions as I asked you before?

3. You said, an individual should be protected by a constitution. And then you put “BUT”. Then, you added that NGO’s will intervene if state resources could not enough to protect.

Due you mean that NGOs can work out the constitutional rights?

And you are saying state should be consulted. For what? And what is the base of consultation? Can state be consulted outside the constitutional righst?

Do not worry if you have little or no knowledge about constitutinal rights. I am just asking because you mentioned some important topic.

4. I know PFDJ associates Rights with Responsibilities. Is BF stand to be the same as that of pfdj? If not, what do you mean individual rights are with responsibilities?

5. I don’t make conspiracies. Therefore let us keep aside EPLF intention. What I am sure about is Eritreans wanted to stay indpendent and live in freedom.

History has recorded that Ethiopia annexed Eritrea in 1962. And it used a military force to keep Eritrea within Ethiopia. And ELF started its armed struggle against Ethiopia’s annexation. Wasn’t it then clear Eritreans wanted to be free from the very beginning?

Remember, EPLF came 10 years later.

You recognize Eritrea of 1890. This means, Eritrea is still now a colony if Italy. You don’t recognize Eritrea of today?

You used”was” on Eritrea’s 1993 referendum recognition. And you said that you had no problem with that. Do you have any problem now it?

Do you recognize Eritrea which is now member of UN and its internationally recognized sovereignity?

Are you going to disqualify 1993 Referendum and bring Eritrea’s fate back to the table of Referendum?

Ur kind response is appreciated.

Note: please use “I” if it is your opinion otherwise I will consider it BF’s stand.

No response as of 24/09/2017.

End of Discussion!







ኣስተንትኖ፡ በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ብመንጽር ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ

ዘይምፍላጥ ሓጥያት ኣይኮነን። እንተኾነ ግና ካብ ዘይምፍላጥ ክትገላገል ትደሊ ምህላውካን ዘይምህላውካን ኣብ እትገብሮም መዓልታዊ ተግባራት ንሂወትካን ሂወትን ካልኦት ደቂ ሰብን ዓቢ ተራ ኣለዎም። ስለዝኾነ ድማ ነቲ ዘይንፈልጦ ማዕረ ክንደይ ኮን ኢና እንፈልጦ? ብሓቂ’ኸ ነቲ ዘይንፈልጦ ክንፈልጥ ተበግሶታት ንወስድ ዲና? እቲ ዘይንፈጦ ፈሊጥንና ክንደይ ኮን ኢና ኣፍደገ ዘይፍልጠትና ንኸፍቶ?

እዚ ኣብቲ “Knowledge and Knowing” ዝበሃል ዓወደ ፍልስፍና ብስፍሕ ዝበለ ኣገባብ ተስተንቲኑ ክንረኽቦ ንኽእል ኢና። ነዚ ፍልጠት ንምፍላጥ ድማ ኣፍደገ ዘይምፍላጥ ምርሓው ማለት እዩ።

እዚ ረቂቕ ፍልስፍናዊ ትንተና ናብ መዓልታዊ ሂወት ፖለቲካ ምስ እንጥቀመሉ ዝሕቦ ትርጉም ብዝተፈላለየ መንገዲ ክንርእዮ ንኽእል። ብሓደ ነገር ደረጃ ንቕሓት ከስምዕ ከሎ፡ ብኻልእ መዳይ ድማ ድርቅነት ሓሳብ ከስምዕ ይኽእል። ደረጃ ንቕሓት ብኽፉትነት ኣእምሮ ክሰዓር ከሎ ድርቅነት ሓሳብ ግና ክልወጥ ኣዝዩ ከቢድን ዝተሓላለኸን ግድል እዩ። 

እቶም ብደረጃ ንቕሓት ዝሳቐዩ ፖለቲከኛታት ምስ መዛንኦም ዝገብርዎ ክፉትን ነጻን ርክባት ሓጋዚ ክኸውን ከሎ፡ ኣብ ናይ ሓባር መኣዲ ምቕራብ ሓጋዚ እዩ። እዚ ድማ ኣብ “ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ” ምርኻብ የስምዕ። 

በቲ ካልእ ድማ እቶም ድርቀርት ሓሳባት ዘጋጥሞም ፖለቲከኛታት ካብቲ ዝነብርሉ በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ክወጹ ይሽገሩ። ኣብታ ጥዕምቲ “በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ” ድማ ብምቾት ይነብሩ። 

ነዚ ዓውደ ፍልጠት ፍልስፍና ክግንጽል ዘገደደኒ ኣጋጣሚ ድማ ምስ ናይ Facebook የዕሩኽተይ ኣብ ዝገብሮ ዝነበርኩ ዝተኸፍተ ኣግዶ ዘይምድላጥ እዩ ዝነበረ። ንኸስተንትን ስለዝሓገዘኒ ድማ እንሆ ብተወሳኺ መእተዊ የሀብቲመ ምሳኹም መኣዲ ዘይፍልጠተይ ይካፈል።

እዚ ኣስተንትኖ (Contemplation) ኢለ ሰምየዮ ዘለኹ ኣርእስቲ፥ ብናትኩም ምስትንታን ከተሀብትምዎ ተስፋ እናገበርኩ ናብቲ ዝተገብረ ኣስተንትኖ ይገድፈኩም።

መበገሲ ዕላል

እዞም ትማሊ ህግ፣ ሎሚ ህግ ትብሉ ኣብ ደንበ ደለይቲ ፍትሒ ዘለኹም ተጋደልቲ፡ ድሌታትኩም ፍትሒ ዘይኮነ ታሪኽኩም ምዕቃብ እዩ ዝመስል።

ዝተዋህበ መልሲ/ርእይቶ

መነጸር veil of ignorance (ብትግርኛ ‘ ኣጉዶ ዘይምፍላጥ’ ወይ ‘ ባዕቲ ድንቁርና ‘ ተበልናዩ እንታይ ብል ኢሉ፡) እስከ ነዕልል። ኣጉዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ፍትሒ ማለት፡ ሕጊ ክንሕንፅጽ ከሎና ናትና መኒነት ኣብ ግምት ከየእተና ክንሕንፅጽ ከሎና እያ ትመጽእ ይብል። ሽቃጣይ ዲኻ ክትከውን፡ ነጋዳይ፡ ትግርኛ ዲኻ ክትከውን ሳሆ፡ ተጋዳላይ ዲኻ ክትከውን ሲቪል ዘይትፈልጥ እንተኾይንካ ንኹሉ ማዕረ ዝሪኢ ሕጊ ትሰርሕ ንምባል እዩ።

ሓደ ተጋዳላይ ተጋድልነቱ ክዕቅብ ጥራሕ ዝሰርሕ እንተኣሎ ካባዛ ብዓቲ ድንቁርና ይእለ። ምኽንያቲ ናይ ምሕደራ ዕድል ኣብ ዝህበሉ ነቶም ከሙኡ ተጋድርልቲ ሓለፋ ዝገብር ሕጊ ክሕንፅጽ፡ ዝፈልጦም መጋድልቱ ኣብ ላዕለዎት ጽፍሒ ኮፍ ክብል ስለዝኾነ።

ካብዚ ነጻ ክኸውን ኣብዚ ናይ ፍትሒ ጉዕዞ ኣብታ ‘ ኣጉዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ‘ ተሳፊሩ ንኹሉ ኣብ ግምት ዘእተወ ርእይቶ ክህብ ከሎ መንእሰይይ እምነት የሕድረሉ።


ብሓደ ወገን በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ገላጺ ይመስል። ከመይ በዓቲ ማለት ክትረኽቦ ዝርይትኽእል ጸልማት ቤት ከስምዕ ስለዝኽእል። እዚ ድማ ካብቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ዘይምውጻእ የስምዕ።

ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ሓቛፊ እዩ። ንኻልኦት’ውን መርሓባ ክብል ጸገም የብሉን። ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ኣኣንጋዲ እዩ። ስለ’ዚ ከምቲ ኣብ ናይ መደምደምታ ጽሑፍካ፡ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥና ምፍላጥ የድልየና ኣሎ። ዘይምፍላጥና እንተፈሊጥንና ንኻልኦት መርሓባ ምባል ጸገም የብልናን። ልክዕ ከም’ቲ ሶቅራጦስ ዝበሎ እዩ ክኸውን ማለት እዩ፡ “ኣነ ዝፈልጥ ከምዘይፈልጥ ምፍላጠይ እዩ”። ስለ’ዚ እዛ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ተድልየና ኣላ።

እቲ ዓቢይ ኤርትራዊ ፍላስፋን ጸሓፍን በየነ ሃይለ(ገና ስርሓቱ ዘይተዳህሰሰ ) ዝበሎ፡ ብየናይ ዓይንና ኢና ንርኢ ምልላይ የድልየና ኣሎ።

እንገብሮ ዘለና ቃልሲ ብዙሕ እዩ ዓይነቱ። ገሊኣቶም ዝተኣስሩ ብጾቶም ወይ ኣባላት ስድራ ቤቶም ሓራ ከውጽኡ ክቃለሱ ከለዉ ገሊኣቶም ድማ መላእ ሓርነት ህዝቢ እዩ ዘገድሶም ዘሎ።

ገሊኦም ናይ ኣውራጃ ነጻነት ከገድሶም ከሎ፡ ገሊኣቶም ድማ ኣውራጅኦም ከም ሃገር ይቃለሱ ኣለው።

ገሊኣቶም ናይ ብሄሮም ሓርነት ከገድሶም ከሎ፡ ገሊኦም ድማ ምምስራት ናይ ብሄሮም ሃገር እዩ ዘቃልሶም ዘሎ።

ገሊኣቶም ንገለ ህዝቢ ዝውክል ሓድሽ ሃገር ምምስራት ክቃለሱ ከለዉ፡ ገሊኣቶም ድማ ሕብረት ምስ ገሊኣተን ሃገራት ዘገድሶም ዘሎ።


ስለዚ እንገብሮ ዘለና ቃልሲ ብዙሕ እዩ ዓትነቱ።

ስለዝኾነ፡ ኣብ ሓደ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ምምጻእ የድልየና ኣሎ።

እቲ ጸገም በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ መስሪቶም ኣብዚኣ ተንከስ ዝበለ ወይልኡ ዝብሉ ብዙሓት ምዃኖም እዩ።

ኣጋጣሚ ደኣ ነዞም ኣብ በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ተጋደልቲ ነበር ጠቒሰ ኣለኹ እምበር ብዙሓት በዓትታት ዘይምፍላጥ ከምዘለዋስ ንብዙሓት ብሩህ እዩ።

ከምዚ ዝበልካዮ፡ ኣብ ኣግዶ (ህድሞ) ዘይምፍላጥ ምውጻእ የድልየና ኣሎ። ኣብ’ዚ ግዜ’ዚ ውን ዝቀላቐል ዘሎ ይመስል። ዘይምፍላጡ ዝፈለጠ  ዝመስል ተስፋ ዘለዎ ምንቅስቓስ’ውን ይቀላቐል ኣሎ።

ንኣብነት፡ ብሩህ መጻኢ ኤርትራ ወላ’ኳ እቲ በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ዝሰዓሮም እንተመሰለ፡ ኣብ’ታ እትድለ ዘላ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ኣብ ምውጻእስ ደሓን ይመስል። ግናኸ ነቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ከይሓፈረ ኣብታ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ክልፍለፉ ክትርኢ ይድንጽወካ። እዚ በዓቲ ዘይምድላጥ ክንደይ ኮን ይሓስም ድማ ክትብል ትግደድ። 

ዘይምፍላጥካ ምፍላጥ ጽቡቕ ነገር እዩ። ሶቅራጠስ ዝበሎ መግለጺ ትሕትና እዩ ዝነበረ። እንተ ናይዚ ብሩህ መጻኢ ግና መግለጺ ብድዐ ይመስል። እዚ ይኹን ደኣ’ምበር ኣብቲ ኣግዶ ዘይምፍላጥ ወጺኦም ስለዘለውስ ክተባብዑ ይግባእ። ኣብዚ ኣግዶ ድማ ብዙሓት ክጽንበሩ ይትስፎ።

ዘይምፍላጥካ ዘይምፍላጥ ሕሱም እዩ። ናይዞም ተጋደልቲ ነበር ኢና ዝብሉ ሓለፋ ኣለዎ። ዘለናዮ ስቅያት ብሰንኪ ጌጋታት ብጾቶምን ባዕላቶምን ምዃኑ ዝተረድኦም ኣይመስልን።

ሓደ ሓደ ተብዓት ካብ በዓቲ ዘይምፍላጥ ወጺኦም ዓውርና ኢና ኔርና ክብሉ ከለዉ ተስፋ ይህበካ። ከም ተጋዳልቲ የማነ ተኽለገርግሽ ይብዙሑልና።

ኣስተንትኖ ዘይምፍላጥ።