ገረብ ብሓኽላ ዝብልዎ ከምዚ ምስ ኣጋጠመ እዩ።
ኣብነት ተወላዶ ኣውራጃ ኣከለጉዛይ
1. ሼኽ ሳልም ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር – ፈጻሚ ዳይረክተር ቤት ጽሕፈት ሙፍቲ ኤርትራ።
እዚ ሸኽ ወዱ ነቲ ቀዳማይ ሙፍቲ ኤርትራ ዝነበረ ሸኽ ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር ኮይኑ – ካብ ሃይማኖታዊ መራሒ ክትብሎ – ኮለኔል ክትብሎ ይቐልል። ንቤት ጽሕፈት ሙፍቲ ኤርትራ መሳርሒ ፖለቲካ ህግደፍ ብምግባር ድማ ጥሩፋት(Radical) ወላ ጅሃድ እናበለ ብዙሓት ኣመንቲ እስልምና ኣብ ትሕቲ ቀይዲ ከም ዝወርዱ ጌርዎም ይርከብ።
2. ኣቡነ ሉቋስ( Abune Luqas) – ፈጻሚ ዳይረክተር ቤት ጽሕፈት ሲኖዶስ ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ።
እዚ ኣቡን ውን ብተመሳሳሊ መራሒ ሃይማኖት ክትብሎ ዘይኮነስ ዕጡቕ በዓል ዝናር ወትሃደራዊ መራሒ ክትብሎ ይቐልል። ንቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ እንሆ ጅሆ ሒዝዋን ብዘይ ፓትርያሪክ ዘኽታም ጌርዋ ይርከብ።
ብወገን ደንበ ተቓውሞ
1. ሸኽ እሽማዒል ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር (Sheikh Ismael Mukhtar) – ካብ ኣባላትን መራሕትን ቤት-ምኽሪ ኤርትራውያን ኣስላም(Eritrean Muslim Council) ኣብ ወጻኢ – ብፍላይ ኣብ ሰሜን ኣመሪካ።
ሸኽ ኢሽማዒል ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር ሓው ንሸኽ ሳልም ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር ኮይኑ – ኣንጻር ናይ ሓው ኣብ ደንበ ተቓውሞ ንጡፍ እዩ። ዝያዳ ድማ ፖለቲካዊ ጽሒፋት ኣብ መርበብ ሓበሬታ ዓዋተ ይጽሕፍ። ኣብ 2010 ብስም ደቂ ሸኽ ኢብራሂም ሙኽታር ዝወጸ ፖለቲካዎ ሰነድ ድማ ብዝያዳ ናቱ ኣበርክቶ ኣቃሊልካ ዝርአ ኣይኮነን። ኣብዛ ሰነድ ዘለኒ ዕቃበታትን ነቐፌታን ኣብ ቀጻሊ ከምጽኦ እየ።
2. ኣቡነ ማርቃርዮስ – ኣባል ሲኖዶስ ተዋህዶ ኤርትራን ሓላፊ ቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣብ ሰሜን ኣመሪካን ኤውሮጳን ኮይኑ ዝያዳ ነቲ ትኣሲሩ ዘሎ ፓትርያሪክ ኣቡነ ኣንጦንዮስ ተኸቲሉ ካብ ህግደፍ ነጻ ዝኾነ ቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣብ ወጻኢ ይመርሕ።
እዞም ኣርባዕተ (4) መንፈሳውያን መራሕቲ ደቂ ሓደ ኣውራጃ ክነሶም ኣብ ክልተ ደንበ ተመቒሎም ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዓይኖም እናረኣየት ካብ ሓደ ጸልማት ናብ ካልእ ጸልማት ክኸይድ ዓይኖም እናረኣየን እዝኖም እናሰምዐን ይዕዘቡ ኣለዉ። ሃገር ድማ ብውሽጢ ትጠፍእ – ብደገ ዘለዉ ኤርትራውያን ድማ ካብ መዓልቲ ናብ መዓልቲ ይበታተን ኣሎ።
ኣብ ውሽጢ ኤርትራ ዘለው – ሃገር እናጠፍአት ከላ መሳርሒ ህግደፍ ኮይኖም ንህዝቢ ሒዞም ይጠፍኡ ኣለዉ።
ኣብ ደገ ዝርከቡ ኤርትራውያን ድማ ብሃይማኖት ተመቓቒሎም ኣብ ጸልማት ሂወት እናነበሩን ዝገደደ ድማ ብፖለቲካዊ ጥፍሽና እናተሳቐዩን ተወሳኺ ሃይማኖታዊ ምምቕቓል ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ሃገሩ ብኢትዮጵያ እናተወረረት ዓይኖም ዓሚቶም ከም ዘይረኣዩ ድምጾም ሓቢኦም ይርከቡ።
ዘሕዝነካ እዞም ኣብ ክልተ ነንበይኑ ደንበ ዝርከቡ – ሓቢሮም ድምጺ ከስምዑ ኣይተራእዩን ዘልዉ።
ተስፋ ይገብር እዞም ደቂ ሓደ ኣውራጃ ጽባሕ ታሪኽ ከይሓቶም።
ከም ዝፍለጥ – ኣብ 1950ታት ውን እቲ ንኤርትራ ዝነበረ ፈደረሽን ንኽፈርስን ኤርትራ ኣብ ትሕቲ ኢትዮጵያ ክትኣቱን መንገዲ ዝኸፈተ ወዲ ኣውራጃ ኣከለጉዛይ ዝኾነ ኣስፍሃ ወልደሚካኤል እዩ።
ስለዚ ነስተውዕል ደኣ።
ደቂ ኣውራጃ ኣከለጉዛይ ድማ ወሪዱ ዘሎ ጸልማት “ገረብ ብሓኽላ” እዩ እሞ ሃየ ደኣ ነዞም መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ካብኦም ዝሕተት ሓድነት ክገብሩ ንጸውዕ።
On 31/05/2017, an Eritrean who identify himself using a nickname Frezghi Mesmer wrote to me via private messenger text the message below to defend my stance regarding Jebert’s case.
Recently, Frezghi Mesmer blocked me after sending a strong message that says, “you have crossed the Red Line”. Immediately, he wrote on his facebook a message calling people to block and unfollow me.
Jeberti are a historic people that spread to four countries in the Horn. Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia. They were either converted by the original Sabaha(Mohamed’s followers who fled to Abyssinia) or related to them. The reason they don’t have their own language is that they assimilated centuries ago. They only kept their origin current and not their original language. Sort of like the Jews. In Ethiopia and Eritrea, they played pivotal historical roles. Especially in Eritrea. The Jeberti of Tigray were persecuted by Menelik(?) and driven out or converted. Those that fled into Eritrea joined existing Jeberti. This is why many Eritreans think all Jeberti come from Tigray. Anyway, because of their experience in Ethiopia. Jeberti were skeptical of Union with Ethiopia. As a result, they were the FIRST to fight for independence as a group. The first victims of Andinet terrorists who killed them and burned their homes and businesses. They were the canary in the goldmine for Eritrea. As such, their wish for historical recognition is not only simple justice. It is also supported by Eritrean patriotism or nationalism. It is also a wish expressed in non-violent and peaceful terms. How could you compare them with the odious Agazians? You should have seen their issue in terms of free expression and recognition of expressed identity by the state.
My Immediate response
Please don’t think that I don’t know this history. I have enough historical background. Jeberti people issue is not political but Civic Rights. Of course, the Civil Rights issue in rare cases can be solved through political movement but the consequence is not simple to imagine
If the Jeberti people are asking the same civic rights in Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia etc, I don’t think they can achieve it through political means as AL-Nahda Party is trying to do. They should better re-organize themselves and fight in Civic Rights Movement form
From the above message, it is not difficult to understand what Frezghi Mesmer stands for. For more, I will publish the full text of our three years conversation that took from January 2016 to January 2019.
Abba Teklemaryam Semharay (1871 – 1942) an Eritrean Catholic priest who fought against Latinization of Eritrean Catholic Church. Abba Teklemaryam Semharay was among the first Catholic priest to be ordained in the year of 1893 in the then established Catholic Cathedral St. Michael in Keren, Eritrea by the French missionaries.
Abba Teklemaryam Semharay was born in Keren. His original village was in Shieb-Seleba, a small Village near the famous and historical monastery Debre-Sina in Senhit Region. Abba Teklemaryam Semharay objected the latinisation of the Eritrean Catholic Church. But, the biggest challenge was the materials needed for the Liturgical services.
He took the responsibility to prepare Ge’ez version of the Catholic Liturgy. He cooperated with the Orthodox Church of Ethiopia to develop it from scratch. The colonizers were not happy with his motion. They sent him to Jerusalem to serve there as a representative of Eritrean/Abyssinian Catholic Church and assist in pilgrimage.
It is from Jerusalem that Abba Teklemaryam Semharay worked so hard to develop the Ge’ez rite. He worked with Ethiopian monks day and night to develop the Ge’ez rite.
Abba Teklemaryam formed a committee with other Catholic priests. Although the Italians were not happy with his works, they did not want to mess too. Therefore, they gave him limited support to work.
From Jerusalem, he went to Rome, then to Paris and back to Rome. In Rome, he was a professor of Ge’ez language. During all these days, he never stopped working for the development of Ge’ez literature and liturgy. He published dozens of articles related to Ge’ez language and materials.
After years of hard work to develop Ge’ez and his service to people, he passed away in 1942. His remains are now in the Vatican. Abba Teklemaryam Semharay Selim is remembered for his great intellect and courage to preserve Eritrean identity. He stood firm against latinisation of Eritrea while he stood high for the mission he was ordained for.
To know more about his works please read this
ስድራ-ቤት Aberra Hagos ተራ ስድራ-ቤት ኣይኮነትን። ካብ መወዳኣእታ 19 ክ/ዘ ኣትሒዛ እዛ ስድራ-ቤታ ስድራ-ቤት ኣብ ሂወት ኤርትራውያን ብዙሕ ጽልዋ ዘለዋ እያ። ንምሉእ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኣብዚ ሕጂ ዘለናዮ እንተ ብጽቡቕ እንተ ብሕማቕ ዓቢ ግደ ዘበርከተት እያ። ከም ሓደ ተራ ስድራ-ቤት ኤርትራ ኣይኮነትን። ኣብ ክብረቶም ኣይመጻእኩን። እኳ ደኣ ኣድናቖት ኣለኒ።
ከም ኩሉ ኤርትራዊ ዕጫ ስደትን መከራን ዘጋጠማ እያ። ደቃ ኣብ ቃልሲ ዘሰለፈትን መስዋእቲ ዝከፈለትን እያ። ከም ኩሎም ኤርትራውያን ድማ ብዝተፈላለየ መንገዲ ካብ ኤርትራ ወጺኣ። ንኤርትራውያን ዘጋጠሞ ውን ኣጋጢምዋ። ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ልዕሊ 450(2011) ዝኣኽሉ ደቂ ስድራ-ቤት ኣበራ ኣለዉ። ካብዞም 450 ኩሎም ኣብ ፖለቲካ ይነጥፉ ማለት ኣይኮነን።
ብሓፈሻ ክርአ እንከሎ ኣብ ፖለቲካ ኤርትራ ዝዋስኡ ሓያላት ደቂ ዘፍረየት እያ። ኣብ’ዚ ደንበ -ተቓውሞ’ውን ብዙሕ ዘበርክቱ ኣለዉ። ብሓፈሻ ክርእዮ ከለኹ ድማ እቲ ብኣብሓግኦም ዝጀመረ ምንቅስቓስ ሃይማኖታውን ፖለቲካውን ዝሓዋወሰ ኮይኑ ረኺበዮ።
ኣበራ ሓጎስ – ወኪል ናይ ወኪላት -Khuluf – al-Khalifa(Main Representative) ናይ Khatmiyyah brotherhood ኣብ ከበሳ ኤርትራ እዩ ኔሩ።
እዚ brotherhood እዚ ብዓረባዊ(ኣቦ) ሱዳናዊት(ኣደ) መበቆል ዘለዎ ሃይማኖታዊ ሰባኺ Mohammud Uthman al-Mirghani ዝተመስረተ ስርዓተ ኣምልኾ Sufi ኮይኑ ካብ 1830ታት ኣትሒዙ መሳርሒ መግዛእቲ ግብጻውያንን ኢጣልያውያንን ዝኾነ እዩ።
ኣብራ ሓጎስ ኣባል ናይዚ brotherhood ብምዃን ድማ ኣብ ከበሳ ኤርትራ ዓቢ ግደ ኣበርኪቱ እዩ።
ኣበራ ሓጎስ ኣብ ግዜ ጣልያን ኣብ ከረን ትምህርቲ technical ትምህርቲ ተማሂሩ ምስ ጣልያን ኣብ ምትሕብባር ብዙሕ ተዋሲኡን ብቑጠባ’ውን ደልዲሉ። ኣብ ግዜ ጣልያን ጽቡቕ ምንቅስቓስ ስለዝነበሮ ኣብ ግዜ እንግሊዝ ምስቶም ኣብ ፖለቲካ ክዋሳእ ዝሓሸ ዕድል ኔርዎ።
ከም’ዚ ናይ Aberra Hagos ብዙሓት ኤርትራውያን ኔሮም እዮም። ንኣብነት ብእንዳ-በክሪ ዝፍለጡ ስድራ-ቤታዊ ምትእስሳር ምስ እንዳ al-Mirghani ዘለዎም ኣብ ከረን ዝመደበሮም መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ኣለዉ። እዛ ስድራ-ቤት እዚኣን ግና ንጥፈታታ ዝያዳ ኣብ ሃይማኖት ጥራሕ ኮይኑ እዩ ተሪፉ። ፍሉጣት ስለዝነበሩ ድማ ንሶም ውን ኣብ ፖለቲካ ከምቲ ዝድለ ሓይሎም ክንቀሳቐሱ ኣይክኣሉን። ከም ዓበይቲ መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ግና ብዙሕ ምኽርታት ይልግሱን ብውሽጢ ውሽጢ ድማ ይተሓባበሩን ኔሮም። ንኣብነት President ናይ Eritrean Muslim League ካብ ስድራ-ቤት al-Murghani እዩ ኔሩ። ዝያዳ ግና Symbolic እዩ ኔሩ።
Aberra Hagos ከም ተራ ኣባል ኮይኑ ኣብ ፖለቲካ ኤርትራ ብዝሓየለ መልክዑ ይንቀሳቐስ ኔሩ። ኣባል ናይቲ Khatmiyyah bortherhood ስለዝነበረ ድማ ዝሓየለ ምንቅስቓስ ኔርዎ። እዚ ናይ Khatmiyyah brotherhood ምንቅስቓስ ገና ክሳብ ሕጂ ይቕጽል ኣሎ። ካብ Khatmiyyah ናብ Jebertiyyah ከሰጋግርዎ ድማ ይሰርሑ ኣለዉ። እዚ ድማ ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ Confusion ፈጢሩ ይርከብ። ስለምንታይ ሃይማኖታዊ ማሕበር ናብ መንነታዊ መግለጺ ክቕየር እንከሎ ኣዝዩ ዝተሓላለኸ እዩ ዝኸውን። ብመሰረቱ ሃይማኖታዊ ስለዝኾነ ድማ ሕልኽላኽ ይፈጥር።
ኣብ’ዚ Jebertiyyah brotherhood ድማ ደቂ Aberra Hagos ክሳብ ሕጂ ይዋስኡ ስለዘለዉ ህዝቢ ክዘራረበሉ ግቡእ እዩ። ውልቃዊ ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን። እዚ ናይ ሃገርን ፖለቲካን ጉዳይ እዩ።
ኣብዛ ስእሊ ሓደ ካብ ኣባላት ስድራቤት Aberra Hagos ብJelal Yassin ABERRA ዝፍለጥ ኣሎ። እዚ ውልቀ-ሰብ እዚ ኣብ ፖለቲካ ኤርትራ ኣዝዩ ንጡፍ ኮይኑ ኣባል ህዝባዊ ግንባር ሓርነት ኤርትራ ዝነበረን ኣብ 1983 ካብ ህዝባዊ ግንባር ወጺኡ ድማ ናብ ስደት ብምምራሕ ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ኣብ ኖርወይ ዝቕመጥ ዘሎ እዩ። ንፖለቲካ ዕላማ ዘለዎ ድማ ገንዘባዊ ወፍርታት የካይድ። ንኣብነት ተስፋይ ተምነዎ ተጠቃሚ ናይ ገንዘባዊ ሓገዝ እዩ።
Bilen language is one of the ancient language used some 5000 years ago during the period of Egyptian pharoahs era. Today, very few people are speaking Bilen language in central Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Although the Bilen speaking communities in Ethiopia is near extinction, the language has managed to survive in Eritrea around a small but uniquely strategic position, the Senhit region.
The Bilen speakers of Eritrea have managed to preserve their ancient language by adapting to different political situations and social dynamics. Today, around 200,000 strong people live in Eritrea who speaks this ancient language of the horn of Africa.
For the last 60 years, the Bilen speaking communities were subjected to constant war, displacement and forced migration. And, for the last 20 years, many young and educated Bilen youth are leaving their homeland in fear of their life and slavery.
This is giving new opportunity for the development of Bilen language literature and use in social media. Today, there are many Bilen language users scattered across the world.
These exiled Bilen language speakers are working to preserve their language. Many initiatives are taking place to prevent it from extinction.
In this article, my objective is not to cover all the on-going initiatives. However, I will try to mention some important developments which are increasingly growing to use Bilen language for their means of communication.
Blin language is increasingly used in social media. Before 4 years, there was none. Now, there are 3 official youtube based radio channels.
Radio Blina is the first and independent youtube based Radio program. It was founded by three individuals who live in different parts of the world. Its central station is in the USA.
It was born on November 3rd, 2014. Yesterday, November 03, it is celebrating its 4th year anniversary.
On this special day, I would like to say Happy Birthday. Thank you for those who make this happen.
Radio Blina’s primary mission is to preserve Bilen language, culture, and tradition. Although its policy is “No Politics here”, today it seems to evolve into a “Neutral position”
2. Radio Jahray
The second was born on September 3rd, 2017. It has celebrated its first anniversary two months ago. This radio was initiated by Dissident Eritreans. A group of independent Eritreans led by Abdu Mohammed Babje came together to form a pro-justice radio with an objective to be the voice of the voiceless Eritreans. Abdu Mohammed Andu was a former journalist and co-founder of Radio Dimtsi Hafash Bilen language branch. After serving for more than 15 years, he left Eritrea in fear of his life. He became a refugee in Switzerland and soon he started to contribute to Radio Blina. In 2017, he and other like-minded Bilen language speakers decided to have their own free and independent radio channel that focuses mainly on human rights and to increase public general awareness about Blin language, history, culture, and traditions.
Radio Jahray is a very successful radio in covering current developments in Eritrean political situation by bringing on-time issues. It is also concerned with international politics in general, and Red Sea geopolitics in particular. Many Bilen speakers who are educated in political sciences are contributing to the program. It is the first time educated political scientists from Bilen speakers to hear their knowledge being heard.
3. Radio Cheberi
This youtube based channel is a religious program that teaches about the Bible and the Catholic religion.
It broadcasted on a weekly bases and its content in Bilen language. Its first program was broadcasted on 31/12/2017. This program is run by a Catholic priest, Abba Meconnen Amanuel. Its content is religious. However, its contribution to the preservation and growth of Bilen language is very important.
4. Yaqeen Tube
This youtube and facebook based channel is dedicated to teaching Qu’ran and Islamic religion using Bilen language.
Although I have encountered this channel recently, I found it very interesting. This channel teaches Qu’ran and Islamic religion. What I appreciate most about it is that unlike those who advocate the Arabic language simply because of their Islamic religion, Blin people are proving they can use their own language to teach their own people about Islam and Quran. I appreciate our brother who took this great initiative. I hope he will make it more regular and formal one like that of Radio Cheberi.
It is also available on youtube channel. You can find it at:
5. Bilen Youth.
This facebook based entertainment channel is a wonderful one. The program is run by young, energetic, dynamic and great visionary youth who grew up in the diaspora. They are simply amazing.
There are also websites dedicated to documenting Bilen language, culture, history, literature and other important documents about Bilen speaking communities. Among these, daberi.org is the leading website where one can find resourceful materials.
To conclude, the use of Bilen language is booming. Immigration and a new opportunity for technology are encouraging free and independent social media outlets to grow independently without fear of oppression. This kind of opportunity is unthinkable inside Eritrea. Nevertheless, what is going around the world anything activity related to Bilen language, culture, tradition, and other social values have a direct impact on the people who are living in Eritrea. Therefore, I encourage everyone to take the initiative that uses Bilen language.
Today, Bilen speaking communities are known by one ethnic group formed by revolutionary ideas and later transformed into a state institutional structure by being part of the 9 ethnic groups. But this clustering is not welcomed by Blin communities.
Some groups are now openly opposing the ethnic group formation. They have started to form their own civic associations to restore their dignity and preserve their language, culture, tradition, history and historical places.
This civic society formation is encountering resistance from individuals who are skeptical about its true motive. Those who are opposing the creation of civic associations are afraid of division among the Bilen speaking communities. This is an imaginary skepticism.
Some civic organizations are emerging by breaking all the opposition coming from different angles. In this regard, a civic association formed by Bet Terqe Tribe is the leading one.
Bet Terqe is one of the largest tribe among the Bilen speaking communities. It is composed of more than 32 independent families clustered into 9 bigger families. Although the current general consensus is all Bet Terqe are from the same family, some disagree.
To encourage the emergence of other civic association formation, it is good to discuss the historical evolution of Blin people clustering introduced by colonizers.
Some historical background
When Eritrea became the official colony of Italy until 1932 Italians were not in hurry to disturb the social structure of Eritreans. However, after 1932 Italians were expanding their colony and they wanted to control the people more aggressively.
As part of the extension of new Italian policy aimed to subjugate more Eritreans, Bilen Social structure became a victim.
Before colonization, Bilen speaking communities were living independently. However, with constant external interference and wars, the social structure of Bilen people started to change.
The first colonizer which introduced “Divide and Rule Policy” among Bilen community was Italy.
Until 1932, Blin people were following a semi-federal system, where each village had its own leader, called shum. ሹመኛ። in total, they were around 25 village chiefs. In each village, there were different families/clans who live together in harmony. They were electing leaders depending on wisdom and leadership quality. It was not family based. And each one had equal opportunity to resume leadership position. And, no one was discriminated.
They had Customary laws which date back to Axumite Kingdom era or Zagwe Dynasty. The Customary laws were free of any religious dogmas or references. They were secular. And, Village Administration and other issues were independent of religious interference.
This kind of administration had helped the Bilen speaking community to preserve their language, culture, and traditions. Although the de-centralized system had its negative effect to protect from, external enemies, internal problems were almost none existent, or are resolved through dialogue and reconciliation.
With the coming of Italians, this ancient and traditional system was shaken. And, the internal harmony of Bilen people is changed.
The Italians were unable to administer them easily. They decided to centralize the 25 villages using Representatives. It is at this that they destroyed the semi-federal and autonomous villages administrative system and nominated Two Bilen Chiefs.
One was from Bet Terqe, and another was from Bet Tewqe.
Many of the village chiefs were unhappy about this re-groupings. And those who revolted, they were put in prison. This is the beginning of chaos among Bilen, community.
During the BMA(British Military Administration), they tried to restore the village chief system. It was impossible as many villages were changed and many moved to cities.
And, Family Clan became the means to new social movement. This led to hot social debate and re-organization. Later, it ended by 3 tribal associations – Bet Terqe, Bet Tewqe, and 12 Neged.
The social groupings established during the 1950s was highly politicized. It had many pressures from the external politics of the Federation era. Although they succeeded in nominating their local representatives and managed to send one representative to the then formed Federal National Assembly, with the dissolution of the federal agreement with Ethiopia, the 3 Bilen faced another challenge. This led to The 3 Bilen Social Groupings to social instability until now.
After Eritrean independence, PFDJ interfered in the internal affairs of Bilen communities. PFDJ brought about 32 clans together and pressured them to be united under one Customary law.
The process was done under the heavy interference of government officials. As shown in the table below, these officials were meant to put pressure among the Bilen people.
Regional Administration heads, National Security agents and other top government officials from Anseba Province were there to put pressure for the clan or family representatives to come out with one Customary law.
Liberation of Bilen Families from the Century old Oppression
In the newly formed clustering, there are about 32 families. My objective is to make these 32 families and other non-included families independent. In order to protect interest and continuity as a strong and unified familiy, each one should be free to form its own independent civic association.
Another independent Civic association can be formed at a bigger umbrella to work on Bilen Culture, tradition and language.
My proposal is to form The Bilen Family Communities Council that will be the Center of all Associations that work independently for the betterment of Bilen Speaking families of Eritrea that are living inside and outside Eritrea.
To read the previous parts, please click the link below
Who are Blin Speaking Communities?
In general, the literature of Blin people is not yet well developed. However, since the 18thC, they have well-documented materials by foreign visitors in their land. Of course, my objective is not to give a Scientific material here, rather highlight the main political discourses that have immensely changed the socio-demography of today’s Bilen speaking communities of Eritrea.
Genealogy of Blin People before 10thC
In my second part, I tried to explain a brief history of Blin people. They belong to the Agaws of today’s Eritrea and Ethiopia who have succeeded their ancient language and way of life. It is not easy to explain how the socio-demographic evolution took place among the Agaws before the 10thC. However, their exposure to Christianity (4thC) and later to Islam(7thC), and the political chaos they faced then after have definitely greatly impacted who they are today.
The Agaws are believed to be the original inhabitants of today’s Eritrea and Ethiopia. They belong to the Kushitic family of ancient Nubia(Sudan). The Nubians had great civilizations in ancient Nubia(North Sudan) before they expanded further along the Red Sea. Some of their historical landmark cities include own urban centers like Nubia, Dongola, Adulis, Axum, Lalibela, etc.
Kushites are the ancient Africans who lived between the Nile river and the Red Sea. They are the ancient Africans who lived between the Nile river and the Red Sea. According to the Biblical and Islamic Scholars genealogy, Kush was the son of Ham and grandson of Noah as given in Figure 1. For example, the Bible has mentioned in Genesis 10:6 Kush and descendants as given in the family tree below. Though there some controversial issues regarding the history behind Kush father, Ham and the Curse of Noah, their mention shows us how significant they are in world history.
In a research paper presented by Dr. Idris Abubeker on the occasion of Blin Conference held in Stuttgart(2017), Blin people were mentioned in history by their names and were briefly described by Arab historians who visited in the horn of Africa in the 12thC. According to his findings, an Arab geographer, botanist, Historian El-Idrissi(1100 – 1167 or 1175), Blin people were living between the land of Abyssinia and the Beja. Blin and Balion was their name and were Coptic Orthodox Christians who had absolute control of their land. According to El-Idrissi, the Blin people embraced Christianity in the early days of its expansion. Not only this, El-Edrissi described people as people having “stringency and determination” qualities. During those days, Blin had a relationship with the neighboring people Bejas, the Abyssinians, and Nubias and distant people such as the Romans.
According to Dr. Idris Abubeker, another well known Arab poet who recorded about Blin people was Ibn al-Qalaqis of Alexandria(1138 – 1172), visited Dahlak Island via Aden in 1169, witnessed the Blin people demolishing mosques in protest of Islamic expansion around the Coastal line.
Like all Kushitic people, Blin people trace their ancestral origin some 4000 – 5000 years ago. Apart from the Lasta – agaws narration, there are some oral folklores in Senhit area around Megarih (Keren) which dates back 3000 years old. These oral folklores tells a clue about the existence of well-established centers of Kushitic families around Megarih. It is believed these establishments destroyed by natural disaster.
Families/Clans like the Laguen(ላጐን), also called Bet Musha, Kelew(ከለው) believe that they are the ancient settlers of Senhit. The Laguen people have still retained some of their ancestral traditions and values. They are religious clergies and masters of Ge’ez language. Now, the Laguen people speak different languages, follow different religions and live throughout Eritrea.
Genealogy of Blin People After 10thC
Most Agaws trace their genealogy that dates back from Emperor Mara Takla Haymanot, the founder and ruler of Zagwe Dynasty(916 – 919) and then until Emperor Harbai(1262 – 1270). The short list of Zagwe Dynasty rulers provided in the genealogy of Royal kings of Ethiopia is given in the table below. However, this table seems not complete compared to what Fidel Mekonen has provided.
After Emperor Harbai(1270), the Solomonic kingdom of Abyssinia emerged and the power was transferred to Showa. The Agaw continued to rule their province(Lasta) as an autonomous region under a new title, Wagshum. With time, Wag is removed. Now, all Agaws appointed their local reign from Lasta to have the title, “Shum, or Sim”. Until today, this honorary title is common among the Kushites of Eritrea and Tigray.
Therefore, it is quite easy to know with whom the Blin people of Eritrea are associated with. Until today, their language, their culture, and way of life, and their religious practice and social structure and customary laws are similar with those of the Agaws who are living in Ethiopia to this day.
Further, if one is curious to know who the Bilen speaking communities in Eritrea are, it is quite easy to study Kemant people of Ethiopia and other Agaws who are still living in Lasta, Gonder. Agaw families who are living scattered in Ethiopia are the ancestral families of today’s Blin people of Eritrea who are living in most areas of Sahel, Hamasien, and Seraye people are living in Eritrea.
After the fall of the Zagwe Dynasty, new Agaw families were forced to flee in fear of persecution by the Amharas and migrated all along to the Senhit in search of a secured place. The newcomers settled there either by force where the indigenous people not strong enough to protect their land or their number was too small so that there was free land that allowed them to integrate without dispute. Nevertheless, there is no recorded or oral history that gives a clue about a land dispute between the then newcomers and indigenous that can potentially accuse the newcomers as land grabbers.
Most Blin families recall their family genealogy starting from the 10thC. AC as most Blin speaking communities of Eritrea associates themselves with the Kushites families of Agaw, from Lasta. This gave them a lineage with the last kingdom of Agaw, known by historians as Zagwe Dynasty or Kingdom(916 – 1270). There are new genealogical studies about the Blin people which trace their lineage up to King Mirara
A book written by an Eritrean Anthropologist Fidel Mekonen asserts that the majority of Eritreans are of Agaw origin. Even the book by itself is titled, “Sons of King of Kings Mirara Teklehaimanot, ደቂ ንጉሠ ነገሥታት ምራራ ተኽለሃይማኖት.
Fidel Mekonen has conducted an extensive two weeks online seminar via Paltalk to Eritreans about the origin of the people. In the seminar, he discussed in detail about Blin people.
From this youtube, I tried to draw the family tree of Bet Tarqe. A similar family tree can be developed to the rest Bilen speaking communities.
Tribes of Blin People
In the last 100 years, Blin people had experienced two kinds of social clustering executed at the order of the ruling regimes. Such clustering was not at the will of the people but the rulers. It was done so to disrupt the social make-up of the Blin people. Once the social make-up is shaken, it becomes easy for the rulers to exercise their agenda, “divide and rule policy”. According to Michael Gabir, Italians introduced the clustering after 1932 by demolishing the village based self-autonomous federal system in which each village was composed of several clans. Italians changed it into dependent tribal system headed by the colonizers appointed tribal chiefs. And, the second clustering was introduced officially in 2002 whenPFDJ grouped them into one Ethnic group.
Italian imposed Social Clustering of Blin people: Two Grand Tribes
During the Italian period, Blin people had seen two different experiences. Italians as a friendly colonizer, Italians as an aggressive colonizer. Until 1932, Italians did not disturb the social make-up and internal administrative system of Blin people. The people were living in 25 administrative villages. Each village had its own “Shum or Sim”. They continued to use their Customary laws and traditional way of life in which they were used to live with. But, this village type self-autonomous administrative system was convenient for Italians to exercise their power.
In order to have absolute control, they had to demolish the was Blin people used to live by introducing a new administrative system. Hence, in 1932, they forced the Blin people to be grouped into two grand tribal associations. As a result, Blin speaking communities who were living in Senhit and Bogos were forced to be grouped into two larger tribes: Bet Tarqe and Bet Tawqe. This made many small clans who were not directly associated with these two groups but used to have their own customary laws to revolt against. This imposed system brought division among the people. Though Italians managed to impose their rule, after the fascist regime was defeated, Blin people started to re-organize among themselves. From the early 1940s, this led to the bitter internal friction among Blin speaking communites which has its footprints until today. This will be discussed later.
Before 1932, Blin people had semi-federal system of administration where each village was considered as a sovereign small state. Each village was autonomous in its internal administrative systems and land managament.
The first clustering of Blin people happened during the Italian colonization period(1890 – 1941) when Italians destroyed the village-based traditional federal system introduced in 1932.
PFDJ Imposed Social Groupings: One Ethnic Group
In Part I/IV; I tried to discuss the origin of ethnic groupings in Eritrea. It was PLF, later EPLF, which has introduced the ethnicity concept in the Eritrean political atmosphere. Since its inception, Blin speaking communities objected the concept. As a result, EPLF did not succeed in bringing the people in one table. In fact, after independence, unexpected social friction emerged after EPLF officials called a demonstration that supports “Blin ethnicity”.
Since the 1950s, Blin people had settled their internal politics by embracing social groupings which put them into three tribes. From 1950s to 1991, Ethiopia embraced the “Three Groups” and conducted its administration system accordingly. In all administrative affairs that deal with Blin people, there were three nominated representatives that deal with the people. But, EPLF was following different system as tht of Ethiopia. Blin people were represented by one. Hence, Blin people had issues on their affairs as Ethiopia and EPLF were administering the people differently.
In 1992, EPLF was busy in the formation of transitional government and in the process of preparing for Referendum. It is at this moment that he wanted to promote the ethnic groupings. But the people appointed for that matter were not honest in dealing with the matter. Though, the ethnic groupings was mainly based on language spoken, some officials, like Girmay Gergish and Mehari Chinie used their power to manipulate the notion. They provoked land property issue while calling people for unity. This angered the people and new conflict emerged. This particular incidence brought unprecedented social damage among the then relatively peaceful communities.
After the incidence of 1992, it became difficult to unite the Blin communities under one ethnic group. It was only after 2002, that the people were forced to accept the “Three Blin People”. In fact, the notion “three” was a strategy to manipulate those who were against the unity. Otherwise, “Bihere Bilen – ብሄረ ብሌን” is the one that the ordinary people know.
Before 2002, Blin speaking communities were grouped into three grand tribes. They are: Bet Tarqe, Bet Tawqe and Bet 12 Neged. three tribes had their own history to exist.
Today, Blin people are identified as “Blin Ethnic group”. They were pressured to be grouped in one cluster after national security and high rank government officials from the totalitarian PFDJ regime of Eritrea(as you can see in the table) forced them to be merged into one ethnic group. The Blin speaking communities resisted for the clustering but have no option except to follow orders.
Under the “3 Blin Ethnic Group, there are 32 clans clustered into three different groups as shown below.
- Bet Tarqe
Bet Tarqe is composed of 6 larger clans, where one clan is further divided into 4 sub-clans, making it 9 clans. They are living mainly around Keren, with the exception of one, Anseba Lemechei family. As shown in the figure, the clans clustered in Bet Tarqe are: Hada Family(Hadembes, Demat, Tessi’En, and Edekel, Ghebru, Debru, Lemecheli, Begeday and Satif.
Bet Tarqe claim that they are the true Blin people. They claim that Bilen language belongs to them. But, this claim has not ground. In fact, it has been challenged since such claim started to emerge. In fact, this kind of claim and other ownership issues are the main source of friction among the Blin speaking communities, especially between Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged.
2. Bet 12 Neged
This group is composed of several clans which are living in Senhit area. Most of these clans are late comers to the land of Senhit and some claim they are the indogenous people. These clans clsutered themselves in the 1950s in order to have their own representative. They did not want to be dependent with Bet Tarqe. Until today, there is minor dispute between Bet Tarqe and Bet 12 Neged.
As shown in the figure below, Merir, Mettu, Beynu, Hatima, Ekhereru, Genday, Tekher, Khulu, Kellew, Fassila, Zaul Elama are the Clans clustered in Bet 12 – Neged. They live mainly among Bet-Tarqe though they have their own land.
3. Bet Tawqe
Bet Tawqe are blin speaking people who are living in Halhal and its visinity. Their number is large. They claim that they migrated to their current territory from Hamassien. There are clans who live among Bet Tawqe tribe who claim their origin to be from the Arab Peninsula. But, this claim is challenged by the clans themselves. There are also other clans who claim they are not from Agaws. It could be true but, those who claim like that might be the indigenous Kushitic families of Eritrea who lived in the area for thousands of years. The motive for their claim could be because they are unable to trace their history like other clans of Blin speaking communities say.
Tawqe tribes are the composition of two groups: 1 – those who claim they are direct descendants of Tawqe, and the other groups are clans who joined Tawqe sons to form the tribe. These are:
Tawqe sons – Tsefae, Gebsha, Semerechen, Hatish, Lamedri.
And the other group: Tsinfay, Dengin, Jewen, Danshim, Lagu’en and Jengeren.
There are some social conflicts among Bet Tawqe tribe, especially land issues and clan frictions which had let them to clush among themselves several times.
Tribal Conflicts within Blin People
Though, the feelings of tribal conflicts within Blin people seems to have culminated these days, there are some remenants where people are not courageous to discuss about them openly. The tension between Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged seems alive with some verbal exchanges here and there. The feelings of belonginess, pride for the Blin culture and ownership of Blin language, as well as rulers of the Senhit land as well as its inhabitants are vividly alive.
Though the tribes of Bet Tawqe have their own internal complex issues, they seem to be in good terms with the tribes of Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged. In fact, since the 1940s, Bet Tawqe played a great role in bringing these two tribes into an agreement.
- The case of Bet Tawqe and 12 Neged
The disagreement netween Bet Tawqe and clans of 12 Neged seems quite historic. It has its historical roots of interdependence and co-existence under the leadership of Tarqe family. According to different historical records, starting from the 16thC, Bet Tarqe started to organize as a confederated tribal unit under the leadership of Gabre Tarqe. Gabre Tarqe had an Agaw ruling title, “Shum – ሹም”. He joined many clans under his tribal confederate, including those who do not belong to his direct family line, including those who were natives of the Senhit/Bogos area and newly arrived Agaws from Hamassien, Seraye, Semhar and other areas.
It is believed that Senhit was inhabited by other native agaw descendants way before the arrival of Bet Tarqe. Some of these clans include Belew which belong to the Tigre clan of Mensa’e. As Bet Tawqe became the new rulers of the land, Kelew felt under their rule. Therefore, Belew became part of the Bet Tarqe tribes territory and forced to pay taxes.
Other clans who took refugee in Senhit area from the highland of Eritrea were also felt under the leadership of Bet Tawqe. These small clans later started to identify as a separate group as there were social discrimination issues, and imposed taxes to be paid to the tribe chief. Social discrimination includes, marriage and property ownership.
In the beginning, this might not have a big problem as Bet Tarqe had the power to impose their rule over the rest. However, no one wants oppression. With time, it natural for people to fight for their freedom. This is what I believe the beginning of the existing friction between the Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged.
This friction did not emerge out of no where. First, it is the Bet Terqe who came to Senhit, occupied the land of others and who imposed their rule. Second, those newly arrived clans from Hamassien were powerful enough to challenge the rule imposed by Bet Tarqe, reject any discrimination and pay taxes. They are all Agaws and they had similar customary laws which they had inherited from their Agaw ancestors. Therefore, the 12 Neged clans started to distance themselves from the authocratic rule of Tarqe family and have their own leader.
Italians had also their own share in the internal politics of Blin communities. The social groupings introduced in 1932 had reduced the number of representatives and chiefs from 25 to 2. This groupings had a purpose to serve Italian interest by weakening the people. Clans who were independent on their own affairs would definitely find such groupings difficult to accept. Power struggle is another issue that could have created a bitter competition among the clans. This friction had an effect on the internal politics of Blin people that continued throughout the 1940s and 1950s.
In the 1940s, a political development took place where Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged took their internal conflict to a new phase. When British Administration in Eritrea allowed establishment of Civic and Political Associations, Eritreans started to organize themselves based on their family lineage, political, religious, professional and other groups. It is for the first time that each family in Eritrea started to write its family geneonological roots and history. Not only this, Customary laws which were mainly kept among the elders started to be published and ciruclated in each family member.
The freedom given and liberal political environment created during the British Administration period(1941 – 1952), allowed the 12 Neged to reclaim their independence from the Tarqe tribe more easily. Not only this, when the Federal Government of Eritrea and Ethiopia was established, Eritreans had a chance to elect their representatives.Though the main actors were political organizations, the politicians involved their families, clans and tribes in their succession to power.
During the 1940s political termoil, politicians from Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged were in favour of the Unity with Ethiopia. And, this inclination might had historical reasoning and fear of religious domination. But this general inclination did not end their historical struggle for independence among themselves. Rather, dominatio for power emerged. This triggered the struggle for full independence of the 12 Neged.
Generally, the Blin communities were divided into two political camps: those who support Unity with Ethiopia, and those who support full independence of Eritrea. And, this was not based on political consciousness but religious affiliations and fear of the unknown. In this regard, Bet Tarqe and 12 Neged were in the Unity camp, and Bet Tarqe in the Independence bloc.
Within this, Senhit region had to send two delegates to the then formed Eritrean Assembly. Hence, it becomes obvious that each political camp will be represented. Therefore, the competition remained within the two major tribes who were supporting for UNITY with Ethiopia. this group had diverse clans within it and the 12 Neged were not in full control of their affairs because of the historical affiliation they had with Bet Tarqe. When they were electing their own local delegates/deputies, four(4) was given to Bet Tarqe and two(2) to the 12 N. This shows the unfair and unjust representation.