The system of the world we live in today is the product of the past. And, to understand the world we live in, it is better to understand what was happening in the past. In fact, it is like a continuous process.
The Process is like any system process that produces a product. If there is any defect in the the final product, then it needs a detailed investigation in order to understand the whole process.
I think it is not an easy task to understand the whole world processes that have given us today’s world. However, if some key strategies of investigation are followed, the success of figuring out key historical indicators might not be difficult. Once these key elements are identified then it can not be problematic to find alternative deductions to ameliorate the next product or to know any product is the sum total of all elements within the process.
Today is the day to live in and prepare for the future. It is not possible to change today though we can use it for changing tomorrow. In short, the power vested on us today is to plan for our future. And, to plan the future, the past must be understood.
It is within the above contemplation that I tried to revisit the past in order to understand what is today. Of course, I have seen many key historical discourses that shaped the world for the last 2000 years. These discourses have an immense effect in our today’s life, and most probably in the future.
21thC is different. The actors that are controlling our discourses are quite different than the past. This has changed when religion is in the course of having less effect on world matters and decision taking. But this does not mean that religion and religious institutions will not have its share. In fact, it will continue to be the check-and-balance scale to humanity and justice.
The last 2000 years, the world of God’s kingdom(The people of the Book) was full of chaos and crisis. At the center of this chaos, the Christendom (Christian World) played an important historical role.
The Christian world faced a serious challenge when an Islamic world was created some six centuries later. Despite the challenge it faced, the Christendom was evolving from time to time to face theological challenges within itself and to face threats from other worlds.
For this, the Christendom had several Councils (in total 21 Councils over a time span of 1900 years) formed in the different time period to shape their own future in the world stage. The decisions of the Council meetings was affecting the whole Christendom world.
The horn of Africa is on the typical regions which were affected by these Council meetings. To make it short, I have just outlined the major Councils. With time, I will try to outline the major impacts each of these Councils had in the horn of Africa.
a. Antiquity (50 – 451 AD)
- The Council of Jerusalem
- The First Council of Nicaea (325 AD)
- The Council of Constantinople I
- The Council of Ephesus
- The Council of Chalcedon
b. Early Middle Ages(553 – 870)
- The Council of Constantinople II
- The Council of Constantinople III
- The Council of Nicaea II
- The Council of Constantinople IV
c. High and Late Middle Ages (1122 – 1517)
- The Council of Lateran I
- The Council of Lateran II
- The Council of Lateran III
- The Council of Lateran IV
- The Council of Lyon I
- The Council of Lyon II
- The Council of Vienne
- The Council of Constance
- The Council of Florence
- The Council of Lateran V
d. Modernity (1545 – 1965)
- The Council of Trent
- The Council of Vatican I
- The Council of Vatican II