እዚ ብኣጋጣሚ ርካብ ዘረባ ዝገበርክዎ ኣስተንኖ ኣብ ልዕሊ ቁጠባን ሓፈሻዊ ፖለቲካዊ ምኽሪ ሓዘል ዕላል እዩ
Jelal Yassin Aberra – እቲ ዕሉል ተቓላሳይ ንመንነት ጀበርቲ ቀስ ብቐስ መንነትን ክብርታትን ካልኦት ህዝቢ ኤርትራ እናጥፍአ ሓድሽ መንነት ጀበርቲ ከጸባብቕን ክኹልዕን ዝውዕል ናይ ዘመና ተበላጺ ፖለቲከኛ – ሓደ ብሓደ ነቶም ክሕይሉኒ እዮም ዝብሎም ኣብ ትሕቲኡ ከም ዝሑቆፉ ይገብር። ንኣብነት ከም በዓል ዶር. መሓመድ ኬር ዑመር – ካብ ባርካ፣ ተስፋይ ተምነዎ – ካብ ሓማሴን፣ ወዲ ፍሊፖን ካልኦት ውልቀሰባት ይኹኑ ውድባት ሓደ ብሓደ እናወሓጠ ንቃልሱ ብዘይ ተጻብኦ ዕዉት ንክከውን ዝቃለስ ዘሎ ምሁርን በሊሕን ፖለቲከኛ ዘመና እዩ። ብዙሓት ውን በቲ ንሱ ዝኽተሎ ጥበብ ሰዲዕም ዕላማ ጀላል ያሲንን ብጾትን ኣብ ምትግባር ብዘይ ተጻብኦ ክዉን ንምግባር ኣበርቲዑ ይሰርሕ ኣሎ።
Jelal Yassin ABERRA ናይ Social Anthropology ምሁር ኮይኑ ሳልሳይ ወለዶ ካብ Hagos ABERRA – ወኪል ማሕበር Khatmiyyah ኣብ ከበሳ ኤርትራ ዝነበረ እዩ። ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ድማ ብስም መሰል ብሄር ጀበርቲ እናተንቀሳቐሰ ኣብ ኤርትራ ሓድሽ ማእከልነት ጀበርቲ (Jebertiyyah Order) ንምትካል ይሰርሕ ኣሎ።
ማእከልነት ክበሃል ከሎ ልክዕ ከምዚ ናይ ደቂ al-Mirghani ኣብ ከሰላ ዘሎ ሃይማኖታዊ ዝሰረቱ ቅዉም ማእከል ኮይኑ ኣብታ ሃገር ድማ ሱር ተኺሉ ንዝሰፍሐ ዕላማታቱ ይንቀሳቐስ። እዚ ምንቅስቃስ እዚ ነቲ ዝጸንሐ ሕብረተ-ሰብ እናወሓጠ ብካልእ ዘይነበረ ሓድሽ መንነት ኣብ ምትካእን ድሕሪ ኣማኢት ዓመታት ድማ ብፍጹም ዘይነበረ ሓድሽ መንነት ዘለዎ ሕብረተሰብ (Jabartiyyah) ክትካእ ይከኣል።
እዚ ዝኾነሉ ድማ እቲ ዝነበረ ሕብረትሰብ ብዝተፈላለየ እናደኸመን እናጸነተን ስለዝኸይድ ክብርታቱን ባህሉን በቲ ሓድሽ ሕብረተሰብ እናተሰርቀን እናተለወጠን ቀስ ብቐስ ይቕህም። እዚ ማለት ግና እቲ ዝነበረ ሕብረተሰብ ይጸንት ማለት ዘይኮነስ ናብቲ ሓድሽ መንነት እናረዓመ ስለዝኸይድ መንነቱ ይቕይር። ዝነበረ ታሪኹ ድማ ይርሳዕ። ብፍላይ እቲ ዝነበረ ባህልን ክብርን ኣምጻር እቲ ሓድሽ ሕብረተሰብ ስለዝኾነ ከም ሓደ ፍንፉን ተቖጺሩ ክጉሓፍ ከም ዘለዎ ይግበር። እዚ ኣብ Social Evolution (Social Anthropology) ኣዝዩ ረቂቕ ዓውደ ፍልጠት ኮይኑ ምስዚ ብJelal Yassin ABERRA ዝቕለስ ዘሎ ቃልሲ መንነት ብሄረ ጀበርቲ ብዙሕ ዘመሳስሎ ኣገባባት ኣለዎ።
ንጀላል ያሲን ኣበራ ኣቦሓግኡ(Grand father) ኣብ ግዜ መግዛእቲ ጣልያን ወኪል Khatmiyyah Order) ኣብ ከበሳ ኤርትራ ኮይኑ ምስቶም ኣብ ከሰላ ዝማእከሎም መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ደቂ al-Mirghani ጥቡቕ ርክብ ዝነበሮ ኮይኑ ከም ወኪል ኣብ ኣስመራ ሓያል ምንቅስቓስ ኣሕዋት ኻትምያ መስሪቱ። ንሱ ዝመስረቶ ጨንፈር ድማ ክሳብ ሕጂ ኣብ ማእከል ኣስመራን ካልኦት ኣብ ከበሳ ዝርከባ ከተማታት(ብፍላይ ኣብ ሰራየ) ስሩዕ ስርሐን ይቕጽላ አለዋ።
እቲ ብኣበራ ሓጎስ ዝጀመረ ምንቅስቃስ ድማ እንሆ ሕጂ ናብ ሳልሳይ ወለዶ ሰጊሩ ኣብ Norway ከም ስደተኛ ኮይኑ ዝነብር ወዲ ወዱ ንABERRA HAGOS ዝኾነ Jalal Yassin ABERRA ይቕጽል ኣሎ። እዚ ናይ ሕጂ ፍሉይ ዝገብሮ እንተሃልዩ ጨንፈር ኻትምያ ዘይኮነስ ማእከልነት ጀበርቲ(Jabartiyyah Center) ኣብ ኤርትራ ንምትካል ብፖለቲካውን ሃይማኖታውን ምንቅስቃሳት ዝተሰነየ ሓያል ውዳበ ዘለዎ ቃልሲ ኣብ ምክያድ ይርከቡ። ዕላማ ናይዚ ምንቅስቓስ ድማ ብስም መሰል መንነት ብሄረ ጀበርቲ ዝንቀሳቐስ ግን ከኣ ነቲ ኣብ ኤርትራ ዘሎ ሕብረትሰብ ግቡእ ክብሪ ዘይህብ ምንቅስቓሳት ጽባሕ ውን ዘይተደልየ ነውጽታት ኣብ ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ ክፈጥር ይኽእል እዩ።
ቀዋሚ ሕብረተሰብ ዝበሃል የሎን። Social evolution ኩሉ ግዜ ምስ ሃለወ እዩ። ነገር ግና ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ነውጽታት ተሓቢእካ ዝግበር ሽርሕታት እንትርፎ ኣሉታዊ ሳዕቤን ኣዎንታዊ ፍልቀት( Positive Evolution) ከኸትል ኣይክእልን እዩ።
ብፍላይ ድማ ንሓደ ሕብረተሰብ እናወንጀልካን እናኣጸለምካን(ንኣብነት ነቲ ትግርኛ ዝዛረብ ክርስትያናዊ ወገን ኤርትራ) ዝግበር ምስፍሕፋሕ ነቲ ባህርያዊ ዝኾነ evolution ጨውዩ – systematic and direct elimination of societies and social values የኸትል እሞ መልክዕ ናይ መግዛእቲ ይሕዝ። ብፍላይ እዚ ዕላማ’ዚ ብፖለቲካዊ ስልጣን ክጭበጥ ምስ ዝሕሰብ ኣዝዩ ሓደገኛ ሳዕቤን ይህልዎ።
ወላ’ኳ Jelal Yassin ABERRA ዝገብሮ ዘሎ ረቂቕ ኲናት ውልቃዊ ክበሃል እንተኸኣለ እቶም ጎኑ ጎኑ ዝንቀሳቐሱ ውልቀ ሰባት(ንኣብነት Dr. Mustafa Lysedie) ማሕበራት(ማሕበረ ኮም ጀበርቲ) ፖለቲካዊ ውድባት(Al-Nahda Party) ወዘተ ብመሰረቱ እቲ ብኣበራ ሓጎስን ደቁን ዝጀመረ ፖለቲካውን ሃይማኖታውን ቃልሲ ንምቕጻልን ኣብ ሸትኡ ንምብጻሕን እዩ። እዚ ድማ ብስም ብሄረ ጀበርቲ ጉልባብ ተጠቒምካ ማእከልነት ጀበርቲ(Jabartiyyah Center/Order) ንምምስራት እዩ። እዚ ማእከል ድማ ቀንዲ ሕመረቱ ሃይማኖት እስልምና ኮይኑ ንመንነትን ማሕበራዊ ክብርታት(Identity and Social Values) ሕብረተሰብ ጀበርቲ ዝቕልስ ዝዓለመ ማእከልነት ምቛም ማለት እዩ።
እዚ ምምስራት ማእከልነት ብቅንዕናን ግሉጽን ምስ ዝስራሕን ዝህነጽን ጸገም ዝፈጥር ኣይኮነን። ድሮ ኣብ ኤርትራ ብዙሓት ማእከላት ነናተን መንነትን ክብርታትን ዘለወን ናብ ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ’ውን ዓቢ ጽልዋ ዘለወን ብዙሓት እየን። እዘን ማእከላት ሃይማኖታውን ቁጠባዊ ፖለቲካዊ ባህላዊ ወዘተ ክኾና ይኽእላ።
ንኣብነት ናይ Orthodox ዝተፈላለየ ማእከልነት ኣሎ። ናይ ካቶሊክ ዝተፈላለየ ማእከልነት ኣሎ። ናይ ምስልምና ዝተፈላለየ ማእከልነት (ብፍላይ ናይ Sunnah Islam) ወዘተ።
ማእከላት ንምቛም ናብ ዘየድሊ ፖለቲካዊ ሸንኮለል ምኻድ ኣየድልን እዩ። ብፍላይ ንከማኻ ማእከልነት ዘልዎ እናጸለምካ ወይ ክብሪ ከይሃብካ ማእከልነት ክትፈጥር ምጽዓር ብፍጹም ቅኑዕ ኣይኮነን።
ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ድማ ነዚ ብJelal Yassin ABERRA ዝምራሕ ቃልሲ ማሕበር ጀበርቲ(Jabartiyyah Order) ከስተውዕለሉን ካብ ዘየድሊ ምርጻም ወጺኡ ብፍልጠን ንቕሓትን መሰል ኩሉ ኤርትራውን ክብርታት ኤርትራውን ዝኽበረሉ ኩነታት ኣብ ምፍጣር ሓቢሩ ክቃለስ ይግባእ።፡
ኣብ’ዚ ግዚ’ዚ ኤርትራዊ ማእከልነት (Eritrean Order) የብልናን። ማእከልነት ኤርትራ ከይ ተኸልካ ካልኦት ንኣሽቱ ማእከላት ኣብ ምምስራት ዝግበር ቃልሲ ድማ ኮንቱ ድኻምን ፍሽለትን እዩ ዘስዕብ። እንሆ’ውን ኣብ’ዚ 27 ዓመት ብዘይ ዝኾነ ማእከልነት ስለዝተረፈ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ፋሕ ፋሕ ይብል ኣሎ።
ኣነ ከም ኤርትራዊ ዕላማይ ማእከልነት ኤርትራውያን(The New Eritrean Order) ንምምስራት እዩ። ነዚ ማእከልነት ክውን ከይከውን ዝንቀሳቐሱ ሓይልታት ድማ ብዝከኣለኒ ኣብ ምልላይን ብዛዕብኦም ናብ ህዝቢ ምቅላዕን ይንቀሳቐስ ኣለኹ።ሓደካብዚ ምንቅሳቕሳተይ ድማ ከም በዓል Jelal Yassin ABERRA ዝገብርዎ ዓይነት ቃልሲ ህዝቢ ንኽፈልጦም ምግባር እዩ። ህዝቢ ፈሊጡ ድማ ከከም ኣድላይነቱ ድማ ክግምግምን ይሕግዝ።
Islamic Institutions of Eritrea are victims of foreign institutions. For different reasons, the historical Institutions of Islam in Eritrea have left aside since the fall of the Ottoman empire. This was done for a purpose.
With the grand ambition of European expansion and the rise of Arabs against the Ottoman Empire, the Europeans and Arabs were partners to conquer Africa and other parts of the world. But this was a difficult task unless religion was used as a tool, to subjugate the target people.
For this, new religious missionaries from the West and Arab world started to proselyte their own religious orders that had a long-term ambition to colonize the people. These missionaries played the tool of royal family offsprings and trade as a means to establish their base. These were used as initial steps. After some twenty or thirty years, these centers became the springboard to launch their aggressive colonization project by oppressing the native people and eliminating the existing religious institutions.
Since the 16thC, Eritrea had strong religious institutions that had a base along the Red Sea coastal areas. Sheikh Hanafi mosque was of the historical religious institution that had a center in Massawa and belonging to the Sheikh Hanafi School of thoughts from Sunnah Islam. Dankal region had one of the oldest Sunni school of Jurisprudence, the Shafi’i school. There were also from the Maliki and Hanbali schools.
But, these schools were phased out with the arrival of new doctrines that were better armed for the service of colonizers.
In the year of 1817/18, a missionary from Hijaz(now Saudi Arabi) named Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani al-Khatim(originally from Turkistan) crossed the Red Sea to proselytize Idrisiyyah Order(a Sufi Order which was founded by a Sunni Islamic Scholar, jurist, and Sufi, Ahmad Ibn Idris al-Fasi from Morroco).
Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani begot Muhammad al-Hassan al-Mirghani from a Dongola (a city in North Sudan) which he later became the inheritor of legacy in Africa, Khatim. Al-Hassan founded the Khatmiyyah Order in Kassala and became the main instrument of the 19yhC Egyptian expansion in Eastern Sudan and Eritrea. Since then the Khatmiyyah Order had a stronghold in Eritrea, especially the Western Lowlands, Sahel and cities of Eritrea.
The old Sunni Schools were not preferred schools by the Egyptians, Italians, and English. As a result, their influence diminished significantly.
Other Islamic institutions which have growing influence in Eritrea are the al-Azhar University, the Grand Mosque of Mecca and the Grand Mosque of Turkey.
The most influential Islamic Institutions in Eritrea
1. Khatmiyyah Mosque of Kassala and its brotherhood Association branches in Eritrea – the al-Mirghani Royal Family have branches in Keren and Massawa(not effective).
2. al-Azhar Mosque of Egypt and its affiliated institute – Al Azhar University – Cairo
3. The Grand Mosque of Mecca – it is the holiest place of Islam and center of pilgrimage. Its influence is obvious but the Saudi royal family is not free to use the opportunity to influence Eritrean Islamic institutions through their heavily funded projects.
4. Grand Mosque of Turkey
Although Turkey is a secular state, its influence in the Islamic world and Muslim communities is significant. Since the 14thC and to the early 20thC, Turkey was the major power of the world. Its expanded Ottoman empire had a control over the two Holy places of Mecca and Medina.
Although its influence was diminished for the last 100 years or so, its newOttoman project Ambition is playing a great role to attract some opportunist secular and liberal Islam politicians to use Turkey as a base for their political ambitions. Eritreans are not free from this.
The above mentioned Islamic institutions are well established and their influence across the world is strong. With the changing order of the world and fear of the unknowns, these institutions will continue to influence sovereign countries across the world.
Eritrea, being one of the poorest and politically disadvantaged countries with almost non-existing religious institutions, the influence of these foreign institutions will continue to be prominent. This will lead to politically unstable country because Eritrean Islamic institutions are not free from outside influence.
As a Liberal Democrat, my political principle is based on Eritrean sovereignty. This means sovereignity from any kind that breaches absolute freedom of the people and their established institutions. Therefore, it is strategically important to have a general understanding of those actora which have potential threats to influence the political process and independence of Eritrea.
2001 እዋኑ እዋን ውራ ውራ ህግደፋውያን እዩ ዝነበረ። በዚ ግዜዚ ህግደፍ ንመላእ ሃገር ኣብ ትሕቲ ቁጽጽሩ ኣብ ዘእትወሉ ዝነበረ ግዜ ንቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ድማ ሕንፈት ኣይገበረላን።
ካብ መወዳእታ 1990ታት ኣትሒዙ ብፍላይ ኣብ ዓዲ – ቐይሕ ቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ቅዱስ ምካኤል ዝምዕብል ዝነበረ ብኣባ ጽገ ናይ ሎሚ ድማ ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ዝምራሕ ዝነበረ ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ብስም ስብከተ ጸረ መናፍቅነትን ተሃድሶን ከምኡ’ውን ንድሕነት ኦርቶዶክሳዊት ቤተ-ክርስትያንን ብዝብል ጉልባብ ብብዝሒ ክስበኽን ጀሚሩ።
ብሳላ ጻዕሪ ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ኣብ ዓዲ-ቐይሕ ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ኣዝዩ ማዕቢሉ እዩ። ብፍላይ ካብ 1998 ክሳብ 2002 ዘሎ እዋን ብዙሓት በላሕቲ መናእሰያት በቲ ኣብ ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ዝወሃብ ዝነበረ ትምህርቲ ተሳሕቦም ብብዝሒ ሓደስቲ ዲያቆናት ክፈርዩ ዕድል ረኺቦም።
እዞም መንእሰያት ኣዝዩ ስሩዕ ዝኾነ ትምህርታዊ ምክትታልን ካልእ ሓገዛትን ይግበረሎም ስለዝነበረ ብመንጽሩ ውን ብብዝሒ ናብ ዩኒቨርስቲ ኣስመራን ካልኦት ላዕለዎት ትካላት ትምህርትን ስለዝተጸንበሩ ነቲ ኣብ ዓዲ ቀይሕ ዝተማህርዎ ትምህርቲ መናፍቅነትን ምክትታል ትምህርቲ ሰንበትን ከም ዘለዎ ሒዞሞ ተዘርጊሖም።
ብፍላይ እቶም ኣብ ኣስመራ ዩኒቨርስቲ ዝተጸንበሩ ብኣካድያማዊ ትምህርቲ’ውን ከም ኣርኣያ(mentors) ስለዝተወስዱ ንብዙሓት ሓደስቲ መንእሰያት ኣብነት ብምዃን ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ዝያዳ ተቐባልነት ኣብ ምርካብን ብኡ መጠን ድማ ኣብ ምስፍሕፋሕ ዝለዓለ ተራ ተጻዊቶም።
ኣብ 2001 ብዘጋጠመ ፖለቲካዊ ነውጺ ህግደፍ ብሃይማኖታውያን መራሕቲ ውን ንህዝቢ ምቁፃር ዝበለጸን ዝቐለለን ስለዝነበረ ንትምህርቲ ሰንበት ከተባብዕ ተራእዩ። ነቲ ድሕሪ ናጽነት ዘስፋሕፍሕ ዝነበረ ሓድሽ ሃይማኖት ጰንጠ ቆስጠ ድማ ናይ ኣመሪካ መሳርሒ እዩ ብምባል በቶም ትምህርቲ ጸረ-መናፍቅነት ዝሰልጠኑ መንእሰያት ተጻብኦትታት ክወርዶም ጀሚሩ።
ህግደፍ ድማ ነዚ ዕድል ተጠቒሙ እዞም ብኣስተምህሮ መናፍቅነት ዝሰልጠኑ ዲያቆናት ጸረ መናፍቅነት ዝያዳ ስብከቶም ከስፋሕፍሑን ኣንጻር ተኸተልቲ እምነት ጴንጥን ካልኦት ንትምህርቲ ጸረ-መናፍቅነት ዘይድግፉን ኣመንቲ ኦርቶዶክሳዊት ቤተ-ክርስትያን ኤርትራ ደው ክብሉን ኣተባቢዑ። እዚ ጥራሕ ከይኣክል ንኣቡነ ሉቃስ ናብ ኣስመራ ብምምጻእ ዝያዳ ሓይሊ ክህልዎም ብምግባር ንቤት ጽሕፈት ሲኖዶስ ክቆጻጸርዎ ተጌሩ። በዚ መሰረት ድማ ኦርቶዶክስ ቤተ ክርስያን ኤርትራ ብሓድሽ ትምህርቲ ክትህነጽ ጀሚራ።
እታ ኣብ ልዕሊ ካልኦት እምነታትን ሓደስቲ ትምህርትን ጽቡቕ ተጻዋርነት ዝነበራ ቤተ ክርስትያን ኣብ ትሕቲ ጽልዋ ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ብምውዳቕ ንትምህርቲ ሰንበት ዝያዳ ከስፋሕፍሕ ብምግባር ንተኸተልቲ ጰንጠ ይኹኑ ካልኦት ሰዓብቲ ክርስትና ኣብ ትሕቲ ፍጹም ራዕድን ምክትታልን ከምዝወርዱ ብምግባር ኣደዳ ስለያዊ ዕንደራ ህግደፍ ክኾና ዕድል ከፊቶም።
ህግደፍ ድማ ነዚ ዕድል ብምጥቓም ብዙሓት ኣመንትን መራሕቲ ቤተ ክራትያናትን ክኣስር ተራእዩ። ነቶም ኣብ ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ነዊሕ ተመክሮ ዝነበሮም ሰበኽቲ ድማ ግዳይ ማእሰርቲ ክኾኑ ግዜ ኣይወሰደን። ንኣብነት ከም በዓል ዶር. ቀሹ ፍጹም ዝኣመሰሉ ካብ ግዜ ደርግ ኣትሒዞም ኣባላት ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ዝነበሩን ኣብ ምህናጽ ኤርትራዊት ተዋህዲ ቤተ ክርስትያን ኤርትራ ዓቢ ተራ ዝተጻወቱን እንሆ ካብ 2004 ኣትሒዞም ኣብ ትሕቲ ሞቚሕ ህግደፍ ይነብሩ።
ኣብ ኣስመራ ጥቓ ቤተ-ክርስትያን እንዳ ማርያም ዝነበረ ማእከል ጴንጠ ብምውራር ድማ ኣብቲ ማእከል ዝነበረ መጽሓፍትን መሳርሒ ሙዛቃን ከም ዝቃጸል ጌሮም። ብምቕጻል ድማ ኣብ ኣስመራ ብብዝሒ ተዘርጊሑ ዝነበረ ማእከላት ከም ልሙድ ኣጸዋውዓ ድማ Church እናፈተሹን ኣብኡ ክግልገሉ ንዝጸንሕዎም ኣመንቲ እናኣከላበቱን ምስ፡ፖሊስን ኣባላት ጸጥታ ብምትሕብባር ድማ ከም ዝዕጾ ኣብ ምግባርን ዓቢ ተራ ተጻዊቶም። ኣብዘን ማእከላት ዝግልገሉ ዝነበሩ ምእመናን ድማ ኣደዳ ምእሳርን መግረፍትን ክኾኑ ጀሚሮም። ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ካብ 2500 ክሳብ 3000 ኣመንቲ ብሰንኪ እምበቶም ኣብ ትሕቲ እስርቤት ይርከቡም
ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ትምህርቱ ንምስፍሕፋሕ እቶም ኣብ ዓዲ ቐይሕ ዝሰልጠኑ መንእሰያት ዲያቆናት ዝያዳ ሓይሊ ከም ዝህልዎም እዩ ጌሩ። ነቶም ኣብ ኣስመራ ዩኒቨርስቲ ዝነበሩ ድማ ዝያዳ ንጥፈታቶም ከሐይሉን ኣብ ምሉእ ኤርትራ ትምህቲ ሰንበት ከስፋሕፍሑን ዝያዳ ምትብባዕ ጌርሎም። በዚ መሰረት ድማ ካብ 2001 ክሳብ 2005 ዝነበረ እዋን ትምህርቲ ሰንበት ዝያዳ እናስፋሕፍሐን ቤተ-ክርስትያናት ጴንጠቆስጠ ድማ ምሉእ ብምሉእ ከም ዝዕጾ ኮይኑ።
ኣብ 2006 ንፓትርያሪል ኣቡነ ኣንጠንዮስ ካብ መንበረ ጵጵስና ኣብ ምውራድን ኣብ ትሕቲ ቀይዲ ከም ዝወርዱ ኣብ ምግባርን ድማ ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ዝለዓለ ኢድ ተጻዊቶም።
ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ኣቡነ ሉቃስ ፍጹም እምባ ገነነ ባህርያት ብምሓዝ ንቤተ-ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ብዘይ ርእሰ-ሊቃነ ጳጳሳት ተሪፋ ኣብ ደገ ድማ ፍርቃ ኣብ ኢትዮጵያዊት ኦርቶዶክሳዊት ቤተ ክርስትያን ተመቒላ ፍርቃ ድማ ምስ ኮፕቲክ ተዋህዶ ኣለክሳንድርያ(ግብጺ) ተማዕቊባ ብፍጹም ዘኽቲማ ትርከብ። እታ ኣብ ኣስመራ ዘላ ቤተ-ክርስትያን ድማ ብዘይ ኣቦ ዘኽቲማ እንሆ ምስ ኢትዮጵያዊት ተዋህዶ ቤተ-ክርስትያን ንምጽንባር ትሸባሸብ ኣላ።
ኣባ ሉቃስ – እቲ ሰባኺ ጸረ-መናፍቅነት – ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራዊት ቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ፍጹም ዝኽትምና ኣኸቲሉ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ ንህዝበ ክርስትያን ኤርትራ’ውን ጓሳ ዘይብሉ ብምግባር እንሆ ፋሕ-ፋሕ ከም ዝብል ጌርዎም ኣብ ፈቐድኡ ቤተ-ክርስትያናት ክበኣሱን ዋጭ-ዋጭ ክብሉን ክስተት ዳግማይ ባቢሎን ኣብታ ቅድስቲ ቤተ ክርስትያንን ወሪዱ ይርከቡ።
እታ ኣብ ኣመሪካ እትርከብ ቤተ-ክርስያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣብዚ ግዜዚ ምስ ግብጻዊት ቤተ-ክርስትያን እናተሓባበረት ንፓትርያሪክ ኣቡነ ኣንጠንዮስ ዳግማይ ኣብ መንበረ ስልጣኖም ክምለሱ ይቃለሱ ኣለዉ። ይኹን ደኣምበር እታ ነብሳ ክኢላ ክትመሓደር ጀሚራ ዝነበረት ቤተ ክርስትያን ዳግማይ ናብ ግብጻዊት ቤተክርስትያን ተመሊሳ ክትርኢ እንከለኻ የጉህየካ። እዚ ድማ ግብጺ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ ክሳብ ሕጂ ብተዘዋዋሪ ትገዝእ ምህላዋ እዩ ዘመልክት። ካብ መንፈሳዊ ሓርነት ናብ መንፈሳዊ መግዛእቲ ዝተመለስና የመልክት። ዘይምስምማዕ ናብ መግዛእቲ እዩ ዝመልሰካ።
በዚ ኮይኑ በቲ ቤተ ክርስትያን ተዋህዶ ኤርትራ ኣብ ዕንወት ትርከብ። ፍርቂ ጎና ምስ ግብጺ – ፍርቂ ጎና ድማ ምስ ኢትዮጵያ ኮይና ድማ ኣብ ኣስመራ ስማዊ ቤት ጽሕፈት ሲኖዶስ ሒዛ ብዘይ ፓትርያርክ ኣብ ጸልማት ትርከብ ኣላ። ነዛ ቤተ ክርስትያን ከይ ትመቓቐል ድማ ናይ ኩላትና ሓላፍነት እዩ እሞ ንሓድነታን ንክብሪ ኤርትራውነታን ደው ክንብል በዚ ኣጋጣሚ ይጽውዕ።
Selam Network Center ምስ ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም እንታይ እዩ ጸገማ? ወይስ እቶም ኣብቲ መደብ ዝዕደሙ ሓደ ክልተ ፖለቲካን ሃይማኖትን ዝሓዋውሱ ኣብ ልዕሊ ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ዝገብርዎ ናይ ጸለመ ዘመተ ፖለቲካዊ ዕላምኦም ብዘየገድስ መርሓባ ብስም ሃይማኖታዊ ኣስተምህሮ ብምምኽናይ ተአንግድ ኮይና?
ማእከል መርበብ ሰላም – ከም ስምኩም ደኣ ንሰላም ተዛረቡ። ንኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ብስም ትግራይ-ትግርኚ ዝግበር ጎስጓስን ጸለመን እንትርፎ ታሪኽ ኤርትራ ምብልሻውን ልዕላውነት ኤርትራ ብተበለጽቲ ክድፈር ምግባርን ካልእ ትርጉም የብሉን። ከመይ ታሪኽ እንተተበላሽዩ ኩሉ ክበላሾ ቀሊል ስለዝኾነ።
ከም ዝኾነ ኤርትራዊ፥ ኣቶ ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ንዝነበሮ ኣሉታውን ኣወንታውን ገምጋም ክግበር ጽቡቕን ሃናጽን እዩ። ካብ ኤርትራዊ ዘይኮንዎ “ትግራይ-ትግርኚ” ወይ ድማ “ኣግኣዝያናዊ” እናበልካ ዝግበር ናይ ጸለመ ጎስጓስ ሓደገኛ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ ንዕላማ ተበለጽትን ሰብ ካልእ ኣጀንዳን እዩ ብቐሊሉ ባይታ ዝፈጥር። እንተኾነ ኣነ ከም ዝመስለኒ Selam Network Center ዝያዳ ኣብ ሃይማኖት ዛዕባ እያ ተተኩር። በዓል ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ድማ ከም ዓቢ ፖለቲከኛን ኣብ ታሪኽ ኤርትራን ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ድማ ተራኦም ከምዃኑ መጠን ብዓይኒ ሃይማኖት ምንቃፉ ምነልባት ብካልእ መልክዑ ክትርጎም ስለዝኽእል ካብ ከምዚ ዝኣመሰለ ዘየድሊ ጎስጓሳት ነጻ ክትወጹ ብትሕትና ይላቦ።
ብዓይኒ ሃይማኖት፥ ኣቶ ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ጌርዎ ዝብሃል ጌጋታት እንተሎ ድማ “ትግራይ-ትግርኚ” እናበልካ ዘይኮነስ ከም ኤርትራዊ ክግምገምን ታሪኹ ክዝንቶን ክጸሓፍን ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ካብ ሕሉፍ ንኽመሃር ጠቓሚ ይኸውን። ካብዚ ሓሊፉ ግና ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ኤርትራዊ እዮም።፡ንስለ ኤርትራ ድማ ተቓሊሶም። ንስለ ኤርትራ ድማ ኣብ 1993 “እወ ንናጽነት” ኣድሚጾም። ኣብ መሬት ኤርትራ ድማ ብ15/05/1995 ተቐቢሮም።
ነዚ ኤርትራዊ መንነት ድማ ብሂወቶም ከለዉ ዝወሰደሎም ኣይነበረን።፡ድሕሪ ሞቶም ድማ ዝቕንጥጠሎም ከቶ የሎን። ገለ ዝጠፈሹ ፖለቲከኛታት ንስለ ፖለቲካዊ ረብሓኦም ፍሹል መንነት እንተወሰድዎ ንሕና ኤርትራውያን ኤርትራውነቱ ክንዕቅበሉ ደኣምበር ክንምንዝዓሉ ኣይግባእን። ከመይ ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ብሂወት እንከለዉ ኤርትራውነቶም ክምንዝዕም ዝኽእል ከቶ እኮ ኣይየነበረን። ስለምንታይ ንኤርትራውነቶምን ንስለ ሓርነቶምን ደው ስለዝበሉ።
ከም ውጽኢቱ ድማ ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ወላ ኣብቲ ጽንኩር እዋን ነታ ኤርትራዊ መንነትልም ዓቂቦምን ካብ ዘየድሊ ዓበድበድን ሓራ ኔሮም። ሓራ ኮይኖም ከኣ ዓሪፎም። ሕጂ’ውን ኣብቲ ኣብ ኤርትራ ዝርከብ መቓብሮም ብሓርነት ከዕርፉ ንግደፎም።
እንተ ከም ኤርትራዊ ግና ታሪኹ ብምድህሳስ ብጽቡቕ ይኹን ብሕማቕ ክዝከሩ ባህርያዊ እዩ። ንስለ ትምህርትን ልቦናን ድማ ታሪኾም ክንፍትሾምን ክንመራመረሎምን ግቡእ እዩ።
ስለዚ Selam Network Center – ከም ሃይማኖታዊ መርበብ መጠን ንኤርትራውያን ኤርትራውነቶም ዝቕንጥጥ ዛዕባ ሒዝኩም ክትመጹ ኣይግድን።
እዚ ክብል ከለኹ ድማ Selam Network Center ከም መርበብ ሓበሬታ ከምዚ ይገብር እዩ ኣይኮንኩን ዝብል ዘለኹ። እንታይ ደኣ ኣብ መደባትኩም ዕዱም ብዛዕባ ኣቦና ወልደኣብ ወልደማርያም ክዛረብን ዘየድሊ ፖለቲካዊ መኣዝን ዘለዎ ሓሳባት ዝዝርግሕ ኣለዘጋጠመንን እዩ። ካብ ከምዚኦም ዝኣመሉ ውልቀ-ሰባት ዓይነት ሰባት ዘቕርብዎ ፖለቲካዊ ሓዘል ዛዕባ ምስቲ ሓፈሻዊ ዕላማኹም ስለዘይከይድ ብወገነይ ጽቡቕ ኣይኮነን በሃላይ እየ።
እንተኺልኩም ፖለቲካን ሃይማኒትን ምፍላይ እንተዘይኮነ ድማ ክሳብ ሃገራዊ መንነት ዝቕንጥጥ ዛዕባ ዘይምቕራብ ተመራጺ ይኸውን።
this was a collection of facebook discussion done about a topic posted on May 10, 2013. I am posting it here in my blog to be archived for further readings.
Why are Habesha’s divorce rates much higher in the diaspora than back home? I was in an utter shock when I first came here; hearing almost every couple I know are divorced or about to divorce. Some answers I found after asking people to why the reason for this is:
- Money arguments between couples
- Lack of patience especially by the wives
- The fact that Habesha women work, earn money, and are independent in leading their own lives
- Women know their rights and available options
- A lot less social pressure of being stigmatized as “Hayam”
- Many “hadars” here are “nay cheneqew”- not easy to find the right person of your choice when you live dispersed in the Diaspora.
- And finally the elderly would say “qal-kidan Hasiru” or “fori godilu”
What are your thoughts on this? Which one do you think is the biggest reason creating this problem?
Responses of HA Members
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Business has a direct and indirect impact to the lives of world citizens. It is for this reason that UN Human Rights Council came with a new frame of “Business and Human Rights” to oversee due diligence of the way business is conducted in countries in relation to human rights.
In 2005, The UN Secretary – General Kofi Annan appointed a Special Representative John Ruggie of Harvard Professor to oversee the gap between business and human rights and in 2008, John Ruggie came out with a proposed framework on “Business and Human Rights” to the UN Human Rights Council which was unanimously approved states that –
- The state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business;
- The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and
- Greater access by victims to effective remedy, both judicial and non-judicial.
And in 2011, the Special representative issued “Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy framework’ . This framework was also endorsed by UN member countries to become the world’s first comprehensive guidance for companies to report on how they respect human rights.
The UN guiding principles on Business and Human Rights applies to all States and to all business enterprises, regardless of their size, sector, location, ownership and structure. Its foundational principle (1), it states –
“States must protect against human rights abuse within their territory and/or jurisdiction by third parties, including business enterprises. This requires taking appropriate steps to prevent, investigate, punish and redress such abuse through effective policies, legislation, regulations and adjunctions.”
And in regard to any company that is hosted in state territory, the UN Principles on Business and Human Rights states,
States should set out clearly the expectation that all business enterprises domiciled in their territory and/or jurisdiction respects human rights throughout their operations.
It is within this general principle that I am calling to all companies which are currently operating in Eritrea to take their responsibility of conducting businesses that has no harm to Eritrean citizens.
As the world knows, Eritrea is accused of its systematic and widespread violation of human rights that might amount to crimes against humanity since its independence (1991). This systematic crimes is a state sponsored that is conducted at a governmental level. It is one of the worst widespread crimes the world is witnessing after 2000. Though Eritrean government continue to reject this accusation, facts in the ground are clear enough to prove how far these violations are widespread.
Today, Eritrea is the worst country according to the world press index, the second most producer of political refugees (first Syria), a country with the highest number of political prisoners, a country that has no university but it runs more than 360 secretive prison networks, forced labor is a norm, civic liberties is absent and associations free of PFDJ political influences are prohibited, religious freedom is absent and often religious leaders are subjected to prison and house arrest, etc. Worse, every citizen is forced to join military unites for unlimited period of time.
Under this condition, it is not simple to figure out whether a business is operated free of human rights violations or not. According to UN reports in 2015, a Canadian mining company, Nevsun, which has been operating mining activities since 2008, is accused of using Forced Labor by individual Eritreans who happen to work in the company since its establishment in Bisha Mining center. And UN has accused Nevsun for using forced labor. More than fifty (50) Eritreans have open a lawsuit case civil action in Canada against Nevsun. These Eritreans are former construction works at Bisha Mining center without their concert. A construction company which is owned by the ruling regime of Eritrea provided these working men and women as part of an agreement between the two companies. And these individuals were military conscripts. As a result, Nevsun is accused of using Forced labor.
Though Nevsun is the only company that is brought to the court so far, there are many international companies that are currently operating in Eritrea. The State is the main provider of human resources. And, this is done through a pre-conditioned agreement of human resources supplies. There is no doubt that the state uses its conscripted men and women to make profits.
Though it is hard to make a complete list of companies that are currently operating in Eritrea, some of these companies that I have general information are from China, Sweden, France, Canada, USA, South Africa, Australia, Italy etc. In this article, I will mention some companies that are currently operating in Eritrea.
Nevsun is a mid-tier, copper-producing, mining company headquarters in Vancouver, Canada. Founded in 1965, this company had operated in two other African countries(Ghana and Mali). Currently, it is operating in Bisha Mining center, Eritrea.
Though it is believed to have social responsibility programs in Bisha Mine, and the company has been producing annual reports since 2011, the company has faced serious allegations on violating human rights of using Forced labor in its activity.
Nevsun has put in its vision about Human Rights as follows –
We believe in treating everyone equally and with dignity and respect. We support inclusiveness and diversity of opinions in the decision-making process.
So far, Nevsun Company is refusing such allegations though the number of accusers is increasing substantially.
May be for many Eritreans, this company is not known but its global existence is huge in the in the information technology. What might be new to many, including well informed Eritreans is about the existence of this company in Eritrea.
From credible information I had, Huawei is behind Eri – Tel, the only internet and telephone service Eritrean national company. Huawei provides the most talented Engineering professionals that work in the design and programming technology center of Eri – Tel by making a sub – contract. Very few Chinese staff members are stationed in Eritrea.
As we know, Eri – Tel is the main violator of human rights in Eritrea by making communication services restricted and checked for every single network. Eritreans are heavily spied both inside and outside Eritrea. Eri- Tel works closely with the only existing political regime to make massive surveillance on dissent Eritreans.
According to their web information, Huawei believes in the power of dissolving boundaries to work more closely with the world.
Huawei is a threat to Eritrean privacy and cyber security. There is no information disclosed about the business relationship of this company in Eritrea. So far, it remains secret to the world.
This American company has a long existence in Eritrea. Almost all machineries of high quality that involved in every development projects and war zone are operated by the use of Caterpillar machines.
Caterpillar Company has a head branch office in Eritrea where every activity concerning these machines are conducted. Machines that are imported to Eritrea are in use in the construction of prison centers, war trenches, mining centers, etc. And all skilled professionals who run these machines are forced military conscripts who are facing forced labor.
For example, Bisha Mining Company uses these machines in its mining operations. There is no doubt that this company is involved in the gross human rights violations of Eritreans by being the main supplier of the regime that is involved in crimes against humanity.
Total is a French giant oil company that has been operating in Eritrean for decades. It is the main supplier of oil products to Eritrea. Currently, it is expanding rapidly its activities by installing new infrastructures.
Though Total Company is private, it follows strict regulations put by Eritrean government in price regulation and coupon systems that are implemented to control oil and gas distribution in Eritrea. The ruling regime has heavy hand in the regulation of Total business activity.
Eritrean citizens do not have a freedom to buy their fuel needs from the company without the permission given from the government.
In addition, the fuel sold to the government is used in areas where forced labor is exercised. And for security purpose, forced conscripts are used as guardians of Total centers, especially in deposit areas that are installed in Northern Red Sea and Maekel region.
Danakali Limited is a new company established between Eritrean National Company (ENAMCO) and Australian owned private company called Danakali on a 50:50 joint venture. This company is currently working in the establishment phase and license application to start its mining exploitation activity.
The area it operates to native settlers of Afar people. Afar are Eritrean people who happen to live in the Danakil areas for centuries in peace and harmony until they faced a serious threat to their own survival. The Ruling regime has made life miserable for these people by banning them to conduct their traditional economic livelihood in the Red Sea. As a result, more than 35,000 Afar families are forced to flee from their native land and live in refugee camps along the border in Ethiopia.
Installation of Danakali Company in Collul area has also added to their freedom of movement restrictions as the area is heavily guarded by military force.
Not only this, Danakali Company is using military force to protect for its security. And these military forces are forced conscripts who have no freedom to decide for their life but work as forced conscripts.
To conclude, the list I provided above is not exhaustive but indicative. There are many companies that are currently doing business in Eritrea. Though Eritrea may not guarantee human rights of its citizens, each company which is operating in Eritrea has a responsibility of not involving or act as leverage in the violation of human rights. If any company is involved in such acts, respective parent country has a responsibility to call for this company to fulfill its human rights obligations by conducting due diligence. The case of Nevsun is one typical example. Other countries have also a responsibility to follow UN guiding principles on Business and Human Rights as it is endorsed in 2011.
As Eritreans, we have to work out in increasing international awareness about the business conduct of any company that operates in Eritrea. Today, any business activity has a potential link in the gross violation of human rights in Eritrea. As far as the regime continues to remain in power, any business activity is prone to human rights abuses. And we need to stay alerted and be whistleblowers whenever necessary so that we can bring these companies to accountability.
I am calling some emotionally drived individuals who are threating openly individuals like Elsa Chrum. I am following the on-going word exchange and outraged hatred based accusations.
My call is, if ESMNS is fighting for justice, and it stands against the PFDJ system, there is no rational reason to follow injustice and PFDJ way of threatening people. If Elsa Chrum did something wrong, let you open a file and charge her. She is living in the world where there is justice and any concerned group or individual can suit a case.
Concerning Esayas, I hope he will not be endangered like our previous freedom figheters, the Menkae, who vanished unnoticed by EPLF. Let’s remember that history can repeat.
To conclude, my call is for wisdom, justice and free from emotions. This will not help the journey to end the tyranny in Asmara. Equally, I call the leadership of ESMNS to intervene genuinely and rest the case for the common good. If this case is handled wrongly, the YOUTH opposition group will be nothing but a carbon copy of PFDJ and a possible future dictator.
tes, one of your good wishers
Veery very late. If Simret had all these follow-up, it shouldhave worked early to inform the public from un necessary conspiracy.
I hope people like you will continue to make things clear and sit with a friendly environment with all concerned individuals or organizations and in particular with IT and his family to settle the matter peacefully and strengthen our struggle.
Divisions and accusations will only give advantage to PFDJ. We should should show to Eritreans that we can sit together no matter what political approach we have and solve problems in a more civility.
I consider this as a lithmus test of Simret and EYSC, as youth oppsotion camps, which I always give my heartful support despite and I believe that we the YOUTHS are able to sit together and negotiate for the common good.
Thank you again for the other side perspective and follow-up. And I call you to increase your effort in order to nurture civility.
This was a live facebook Presentation broadcasted on 10/02/2018. Its objective is to give a thorough analysis about Human Rights Activism and Human Rights Situation of Eritrea and Eritreans.
- Human Rights Concern – Eritrea (HRCE)
- Eritrean Initiatives on Refugee Rights
- Europe External Policy Advisors and Europe External Programme with Africa
- Race on the Agenda, ROTA
- Information Laundering & Production of “UN Reports” on Eritrea
- Diaspora solidarity for Eritrea: the Arbi Harnet campaign
- Citizens for Democratic Rights in Eritrea- CDRiE
- Eritrean Movement for Democracy and Human Right – EMDHR
- Eritrean Diaspora in East Africa (EDEA)
- Eritrean Diaspora in East Africa (EDEA)
- Release Eritrea
- Reconciliation call for a United and Friendly Action: An Open Public Call on the Occasion of Prisoner’s day
- Information Forum for Eritrea
- Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights
- Rights of Citizens: Civil Rights, Political Rights and Economic Rights
እዚ ልዕሊ 25 ጠለባት ዘማልአ ዓቢ ተቓውሞ ንመንግስቲ ማክሮን ኣብ መላእ ፍራንስ ብፍላይ ኣብ ፓሪስ ይቕጽል ኣሎ።
Date: 24/11/2018 en Tours