Monthly Archives: April 2015

Ethiopia: Is it a strategic position or a strategic partner? 

Ethiopia: Is it a strategic position or a strategic partner?

Eritrean politics has been morphed and swayed by different political actors since its inception. At different stages, different images were created and from these images vague realities were developed. Yet bitter experiences are on display to an open minded but ordinary reader.

Before dealing with the subject matter at hand, let me enrich some of the on-going arguments between different stakeholders of ideas.

  1. Political line of thinking and a strategy to contain them

A glimpse analysis will be wise if the gist is forwarded on different political lines of thinking we have at these days. Literally, line of thinking/thought can be defined as “a particular way of thinking that is characteristic of some individual or group”. It becomes sophisticated when trying to read what it means in its sensational definition. According to Professor Michael Freeden [1], there is no well established disciple that deal with this subject matter and trying to apply in a complex atmosphere like that of Eritrea where cold war ideologies still survives among the elietes might usually ends being a like a mockery.

Professor Michael Freeden when asked about what  Political line of thinking, he responded by saying, “ my current work is taking me beyond the study of ideologies to the broader study of the ubiquitous practice of thinking politically a practice in which we all engage at different levels of sophistication and frequency. As students of politics it is incumbent on us to explore and understand the actual political thinking that takes in all societies. I am trying to fill an underdeveloped gap that has existed in our discipline, one between the normative study of political theory and the (often canonical) history of political thoughts. I contend that we cannot give adequate-practices and establish what their enabling and constraining features are, both as employed by professional thinkers and in the vernacular. “ [2]

From the above response it is of no doubt that the diversity within the political line of thinking resides within the elites. When it comes to Eritrea, the value of elite was belittled in a broad-day bashing as part of the PFDJ political line of thinking, a thinking that opposes rejuvenation of ideas and exerted on it a volcanic blow within its territories. Despite such bullying, the term elite has maintained its existence in the well established cyber world and Awate Forum  has never failed to attract a good number of these elites which were once ruled to vanish. The elites who live in this forum are diverse in their way values and norms, educational level and profession, origin and nationality, motives and intentions as well as their passion to forward their political line of thinking.

The form being lead by active and dynamic team plus their strong take on responsibilities has encouraged many elites to make their political hegemony come to the surface. It is a very rare achievement. The reason for having such center hub of different political line of thinking starts right from the co-founders* of this forum. Reading in between the lines of the co-founders, one can learn how diversity can be managed and harvested for good.

  1. Impact of line of thinking

It is not an easy to identify who is who in regard to the way he thinks based on what he writes only as writing is only one from the overall activities that an individual can be described of. Despite such handicaps, consistent follow-up of lines for longtime and cross-examining of intentions, contents, feelings, passion, persistence and consistence of lines can help to construct a general but vague image. Through this image making infancy categorization is step forward in the general hypothesis of line of thinking.

This classification system might be supporting through logical, objective and subjective reasoning. It is not a surprise though if such classification systems are rejected by the target in study. Yet, the arguments that might develop within can add a value thoroughly until they finally are considered as existing norms. Even though such methodologies are of purely from individual lines observation, their existence beyond the person in scrutinization is of high probability.

The advantage of such political line of thinking identification processes and clustering them to where they belong  help to understand the source of disagreements and sometimes to prevent an escalating and unwanted political heat diffusion to the masses. Not only this, strategies followed by different thinkers can also be studied and challenged.

At larger scale, clustering system can be introduced so that different political organizations in existence today based on the principles and methodology to reach their set objectives, visions and missions. Clustering of political diversity can start right from where they are and gradually can be combined with those who are close enough in their overall objectives, till they finally stand together and advance their cause.

A primary step of identifying different line of thinking has been introduced at Awate Forum. Some of the Forumers saw such classification system with suspicion. Many where in doubt as the intention can be for negative means. The fact is, it is of purely scholarly exercise to advance our collective missions.

Some of the known line of thinking are:

Fine School of Thought: Political thinkers on this line care less for ideologies and nationalism centered ideals. All they advocate for is for rights of human being. They respect humanity as they are and want to live the values and norms owned as it is. They do believe on co-existence of people no matter what affiliation they have. Secular system not welcomed in its grassy nature. The state for them is a collective entity. What the society has the state has it is their main line of core message. History and collective values of the society they advocate for is their base. Above all, grievances are their driving motto. They care more on social well-being rather than big political terms such as democracy. Fine School of Thought believes that freedom contains democracy not the other way round. Hence, they fight for complete emancipation of human freedom. People who are found in this line of thinking embrace everyone as far as there exists humanity within it. History and values of the society they work for is the most important thing. Anyone trying to ruin are ready to defend it.

Chauvinists’ School of Thought: This school has a blind submission to patriotism. Sometimes their attachment with their country is complicated enough to make a synthesis of their advocacy. It is a mix of externalizing issues and being ambivalent internally. It is not unusual to see an attitude of superiority towards other group or society. Though their base is history like that of the fine school of thought, values and norms of the society they advocate for is always bottlenecked. They do this for their extreme power ambitions. As far as there is a power grip at the center and the people get relative freedom to breathe on, living on past patriotism is an accepted norm. Power for this line of thinkers is of legitimacy not of process issue. They have strong affinity to past glories no matter how they were achieved. For them, the end is more important than the means.

School of Opportunists: unlike the other two previous schools, the followers of this school have very narrow mindset and always look for loopholes to make their case happen. History, values and norms are their arch-enemy. They advocate none except for their dead soul. Opportunists have developed a strong mechanism to happen their dream come true and this is by deleting history that goes against their objectives and glorifying a selected portion of it for demonization process, conspiring the future. Existing situation is the most important as they believe that it because of historical mistakes. This school never proposes a solution for the predicament they mention loudly from within rather they work hard to contain it within lost opportunities as per their claim. Followers of this school are always ready to broker in state selling business and do not bother who buys it as far as there is a buyer.

School of Abyssinian Fundamentalists: one might confuse looking from the surface the political terminologies utilized by the school of opportunists and the Abyssinian fundamentalists. Nevertheless, their methodology is quite different. Their main reference is a 3000 years myth constructed during the political hegemonic ambitions of the 19th C emperors. Their advocacy is yet unlimited adventure to the North. The North of Abyssinia, as they used to refer during their ambitious political fantasy, holds their main center hub of expansion agenda. No matter what the objective reality is, no matter how the international norms are valued, still they believe marching to North is the means to a century old march.

There are other types of schools that might be fit to be categorized as line of thinking. Institute of PFDJ mindset multiplication center is one. There are accepted standards to categorize thoughts as political lines and PFDJ lines terribly fails to fulfill such criteria’s and hence it is an institute set for a well defined objective and hence PFDJ mindset multiplication center. A corrupted version of habesha identity is their main tool to rich the masses. Instead of Abyssinia, today they have borrowed a new name called “habesha land”. Just like before, many within the declared Abyssinian land do not belong the reference identity they advocate yet as usual they preach for an a nonexistent and born out of illusionist harmony.

Institute of PFDJ mindset Multiplication Center: As its name implies, it has nothing to do with thinking but with multiplication of an already existing set objectives. Some might mistakenly mix EPLF and PFDJ mindset while it is not. Just like that of Making Greater Tigray State original manifesto, PFDJ has brought back on table the long shelved manifesto of “Nihnan Elaman –we and our objectives” [3]after successfully liquidated all the enablers of EPLF war time heroes. Today, PFDJ is completely dissociated from the true nature of EPLF. It has an ideology copied from North Korea and enablers throughout the world. Sadly, there is nothing new idea manifested except a portrayed image of the 1971 manifesto and a dictatorial rule to make that happen. Every mind selected crams the manifesto and is equipped with an ideology that creates terror among its outreaches. This institute was born from hate and lives in hate. It equips itself words of hate and propagates hate. Above all, it has no mercy to kill humanity. Graduates of this institute do not know history, de-value humanity and are guided out of normality. They try to justify their means through coerciveness. Everywhere they land; their lines are full of hate and dictum of order.

Other minor schools are School of Undoings though their existence is always in co-existence. Many ethnic based and grievance based line thinkers might fall under this category. This school has acceptable social, economic and political grievances. But their approach to solve their problem has being hijacked by past glories. They meditate on their past heroes and try to select groups which sympathize with their deeds.

  1. Political line of thinking and its interaction

Eritrean politics is always at a cross road. Its outreach programs is

Strategic position

Strategic position analysis is of pivotal importance to assess whether these political organizations are connected with the people and objectives they advocate for. The methods that can help to perform such analysis might vary greatly based on the objectives available at hand and its long impact among the actors. Some of the methods that can be applied are:

  1. Political performance: Performing performance analysis is of paramount importance in strategic position assessment. If politics is tangled, its position is equally damaged in such a level that an expected position is at a loss.

Works Cited

[1] “eAnswers,” Wikipedia, [Online]. Available: http://wiki.eanswers.com/en/Michael_Freeden?ext=t&cid=5062. [Accessed 25 04 2015].
[2] A. Ewing, “Politics in Spires,” 17 03 2012. [Online]. Available: http://politicsinspires.org/what-is-political-thinking-a-qa-with-professor-michael-freeden/. [Accessed 2015].
[3] EPLF, “Nihnan Elamanan-OUR STRUGGLE AND ITS GOALS , english version 1971,” Liberation, vol. II, no. No. 3, pp. 5-23, 1973.
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An argument to dash

Dear beloved Awatistas,

+++

Introduction to Newtonian Law and its relationship with identity

Thanks to my Newtonian law, it is applied perfectly. Here is the application of my Newtonian Law in politics.

When I read lines that goes agains humanity in general and the rights of Eritreans to live in particular, gravitational law lands me to the target area. The force generated is directly proportional to the magnitute of ideas and inversely proportional the square of the distance between the lines of thinking. Once the gravitational force is developed, just the moon and earth, a strong wave shutters the line of thinking and the sentences starts to vibrate and hence the kinteci theory.

During the application of kinetic theory, each sentence and words are bissected (thanks to dictionary), enough heat is generated to ignite the words and create collision. During this collision, sometimes, the heat is so high and the space we have is not enough to accomodate. At this moment, awate.com posting guidelines are usually crossed and warning follows. Thanks to the limited cyber space we have.

At this moment, most of the ideas are broken into pieces and everybody can pick them for further treatement.

It is very rare to reach to the level of quantum mechanics and apply quantum theory as huge explosion may occur to shut of all accessible ideas.

So far, during the Newtonian Law application, the gravitational force created were enough to create waves and accelerate the words so that the original idea is exposed fully. Quantum theory is reserved for final game against PFDJ as it has to be weeded-out without mercy and no traces to be left-out.

During all these discourses, except the identity of PFDJ, no further detail is needed except lines of thinking, literally mean, what people write here. If the lines of thinking are fine, they are fine and no gravitation will be developed and hence no Newtons Law. If not, the reaction to follow depends on the force created to create.

Remember, opposite ideas attract each other. This is basic law of Newtonian Law of Politics. If ideas are the same, no attraction and no politics.

To repeat, Opposite ideas are necessary for reaction to develop and hence politics.

Within concept, identity of the person is defined by his lines not by his birth identity.

Hence, identity in Newtonian law is line of thinking.

+++

The case of Hayat Adem

let me first make clear this to Saay7:

Dear Saay7, I don’t care who Hayat Adem is as far as she is not OK to share with us.

Dear beloved Awatisats,

I am happy and willing to tell you who I am as I am who I am. No more, no less. I happy with who I am and I am sharing it with you how much I love myself. It is because of my love that I learned to love others. This is my basic life principle that is keeping me to grow.

The above point can help us to meditiate one thing: if you are confident on who you are, you tell it. And when you tell the truth, you get it and that is internal and conscience satisfaction.

On those who are not to share with us on who they are, I have only one point to say, you are just faking your love. No matter how you try to be peace loving and knowledeable you may be, it is against conscience and internal happiness. It kills first you.

+++

In politics:

————
Unfortunately, most of the time, it is very rare to meet people who genuinely advocate what is inside them. Recently, the world has registered few genuine politicians who are true to themselves and true to their ideals.

Mandela and Ghandi are at the forefront.

In our Eritrean history and genuineness, we are lucky, we have also many registered and unregistered, martyred and executed. Abdel Kadir Kebire, Sheik Ibrahim Sultan and Abona Woldeab Woldemariam are from the old but of alive because of their deeds generations we Eritreans are proud to mention their names. And our great revolutionaries like Osman Sabbe can be remembered of our heroes of the armed struggle. Many whom I didn’t mention here are also genuine politicians of today’s Eritrea.

Within this line, here at awate forum, we are glad to have people who darely love their people and are open and available all time. Thanks to know some through e-mails, FB and telephone calls and many here at the forum.

—————-

on the other side, people pretend and they go for their politics. The problem with these pretenders is not hiding their identities, but their identiy flashes here and then and when the reader detects them, they reject. Through continuous detection and refusal, one asks himself if he is really honest with him/her-self. This is human nature.

If human being was created to be perfect, our lines of thinking could be consistent and persisent. Unfortunately they are not. The problem is neither with inconsistency nor with inpersistency, but with denial. DENIAL, DENIAL and most of the time, BETRAYAL.

If this is so, let’s see PFDJ and his leader DIA. How many days and years they denied and betrayed us and more for themselves? 1000 times, 1,000,000 times, my God, it is infinite.

Then, do we know the identity of PFDJ?

Is PFDJ junta Eritrean if simple physical identity is an identity by itself?

I have read and heard many times people claiming that PFDJ is not Eritrean. They are right. But, the identity they mention is not of nationality but the idenity of humanity. The identity that has dignity, values and rights. This is what people have in their mind when they talk on the identity of PFDJ.

The same can hold true with people who say they are humans but when they do inhumane activities.

Hayat Adem, which is now of subject matter, is the same as that of PFDJ. For me, Hayat Adem is not human. Let not even mention national, religious affiliation or sex identity. She is against humanity and hence is non-human.

I don’t care whether she is Eritrean, Ethiopian, TPLF agent, PFDJ agent, what ever you name it. I don’t care even if she is male of female, educatednon-educated, Moslem, non-moslem, bahai or Jehovah. I don’t care. What I care is about her ideas. And her idea is ANTI-HUMANITY. She is not shame to call one country to intervene and take military measures against another country. She cares no for the human loss, she cares no for the consequences.

Why we care then about her identity. She is claming as an Eritrean, female and her name as Hayat Adem, let it be. But we need to tell her that she is against humanity. Merciless messenger of killers.

In fact, she is an Eritrean who has extreme hate on her own people, just the same as dictator Issaias.

I confidently say, DIA is neither Eritrean nor Ethiopian. He has no identity but a mission to KILL people. Same holds true with Hayat Adem.

++++

Dear Saay7*, as chauvinist as you are, you have spent lots of time to describe the the identity of Dictator Issaias Afewerki. Too much time. You didn’t focus on the ideas but on the personality. And now, you are coming to the identity of this inhumane lady called Hayat Adem. Stop please.

DIA and Hayat Adem are playing with their ideas. Let’s kill their ideas. Their are blood thirsty who share their venom with their followers to drink blood of innocent people. They live drinking blood. They don’t care from where the blood comes as far as it is blood. Hayat Adem is neither Eritrean not Eritrean above all she is non-human. She has no single trace of humanity in her mind, the same as that of DIA.

I don’t know how some forumers are finding her alluring when she openly calls for war. Had humanity was not the measure, Hitler could have been worshipped for his extra skills to mobilize the Germans against all and especially the Jews. This is what Hayat Adem is exactly doing.

Solution: Let’s rebuff their ideas and weed-them out.

Dear Awate forumers, it will be good if we share our identity, it iwill be an added value. What matters most is our ideas. And ideas are challenged by ideas no matter who holds them. Hence, I reject Saay7’s claim for identity questioning.

As awate.com is almost the only web at this time which has a profound foundation to discuss on ideas, let’s keep this standard and challenge the unchallengeable.

Thanks to my Newtonian Law which doesn’t discriminate identity.

Voila

tes

* Please Saay7, with all respect I have for you, I call you to challenge as usual on ideas not on personalities. You have a gift almost no Eritrean has at this time, but you are sharing it significantly more than necessary on fighting personalities. Your Issaiaism attack is at the top. I feel that this is not helping us to destroy ideas. Unless ideas are destroyed, killing personally

Originally wriiten under an article from awate.com: http://awate.com/absence-of-class-is-filled-by-something-lower/

is almost nothing but multiplying the virus.

Politics of Jeberti People

First of all, my take is on the corrupted political doctrine of habeshanism. I believe habeshanism today is an equal term with that of Negroism. As much as Negers are proud of their skin colour and tradition as a whole, the newly growing Habesha identity among the diaspora people is becoming a culture of exiled people with different culture and tradition but in search of a unifying factor.

Tto advocate it as a new identity is fine as far as it doesn’t go beyond. Point here, when I say beyond, I am keeping in mind those people who don’t describe themselves as owners of habesha culture in its original form but are swayed by a wind that never belongs to them.

To be frank, I don’t have any qualms if the exiled people living in USA, EU and others cultivate a unifying culture called “Habesah” as it can give them a new identity to unite them in the newly established land. It is better than nothing and at least good enough to create something new version of common identity in which no one can claim. Thanks to PFDJ clustering system of identity, Back home, inspite of it s absence in the classification system, habesha is a sub-set within the of Eritreans cultures now despite its virtual nature.

To come back to your point:

What keeps me worried is that the Jeberti people bought too much from the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist oriented politics of ELF/EPLF and now PFDJ. Ethnicity is an ideological game. Revolutionaries use ethnicity to advance their homoginization process as an initial step. They build defined sub-systems that can easily be targeted through political campaign.

Thinking deeply on the political nature of such categorization, the sub-system they construct under the package of social re-engineering. The main  driving force of “Racism and Ethnicity”  doctriniation is mainly to focus on certain group of social formations through concerted action so that difference can be minimized. They introduce clustering sytem in order to administer and make a complete monopoly of their affairs. Once they define the territory, then they advance their doctrination easily.

They use the defined ethnic clustering during their cultural propaganda. The propagate as if there is diversity though their main objective is uniformity. In their central ideology, little care is given to the concept of 3diversity is diversity. They define the boundaries for the sole purpose of channeling their doctrination and constant brainwashing. Values are destroyed and introduce new and distorted revolutionary culture. Same kind of logistics (such as housing, food and clothes) is provided so that finally people will be forced to develop a new way of living. when they see people behaving in the same manner, they call it a “Social Revolution”.

The contradicting reality is that though people evolve naturally they are forced to revolve and hence turn around. This is what it does revloution.

In Eritrea, the revolution we did has expanded into an area where the people never imagined before. Beside its main objectives of freedom struggle, it went deep into the land-use system revolution and cultural revolution. This was done after trying to adapt the Chinese and other revolutionary principle.

Chinese revolution had different dimension. First, it was set-up to end Japanese domination but later on on the cultural revolution of the 1960s. This time was coincided with time where DIA was there. And I am quite sure this period has huge influence to adopt the chinese model.

You might be wondering whey I am talking about such looking irrelevant topics. Hold on, I have a reason to do so because the Jeberti case a direct result of “Racism and ethnicity politics of marxism (file:///D:/Downloads/543bc9a00cf204cab1db30e3.pdf). The world hqs seen such kind of political struggle as these people who advance such kind of identity politics are direct victims of such revolutions. During the revolution time, Jeberti was clustered as Tigrigna speaking people during the concept of the society of People of Eritrea. Uunder the then established cluster group of Ethnicity, it was sided asTigrigna ethnic group.

Without realizing the ideology behind it, people took it as political rght to fight for ethnicity. And it became a loud struggle because of the advantaged they have within them. There are some forgotten societies and many clustered societies under the name of Ethnicity. Many chapters are open to sue their case if rule of law flourishes once democracy is set. The Saho people case is of no different. The three Blin case is of no different.

What makes me sad is that, instead of abolising the greater ideology that let tus down to think and fight for identity, we forgot the principle of human rights to define who they are and accepted the classification system of the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideologues. All fight therefore to fit into such classification system but under a separate name.

Dear Dayphi, let me ask you this:

In countries like USA or Australia or Sweden or UK, in a place where large number and influencial people of Jeberti live, did the governments of these nations refused them if they register themselves as ” Jeberti as an Ethnic” group?

I really want to hear this, if any of the Jeberti people asked to be registered as Jeberti Ethnic group, are they refused?

My answer is “NO COUNTRY WILL REFUsE FOR YOUR CLAIM” And this is with 99.90 % probability.

Therefore, Jeberti are victims of first revolutionaries ideology and so are during the PFDJ administration. PFDJ is still in his old guerrilla politics.

For a rule that respects humanity, Racism, Ethnicism, Tribalism are no more from identification. Humanity is much bigger than those categories. If one there is democracy, people have a free choice to be identified, be them as groups or individuals and YET all live in harmony but with diversity. Diversity is not li;ited to clothes and dances. Diversity includes everything.

How one can imagine the respect of culture and identity if every entity, including housing design style, food, clothes and schools are rationed with using same logistics? PFDJ controls everything and finally, if it continues to exist, the people of Eritrea will loss everything they own and will be state controlled. No diversity and hence no cultural difference and ethnicity.

Countries lead by dictators don’t like diversity. They like uniformity. This is the reason for PFDJ to introduce Sawa and is now advancing to his level best.

Dear Dayphi, let’s think at humanity level and appreciate our diversity. To tell you the truth, let even Eritrea has 100+ ethnic groups. It will be so beautiful to see different colors.

If some body thinksm he is Habesha, let him be. According to human rights basic law of respect, every individual has a right to be who he is. This means, there will not imposition. The rule of law will only ask him to get registered as such.

The same will hold true if Eritrea is a free and democratic country. And hence freedom.

Concerning history of Jeberti people, I have mentioned good places and even a place that is considered as Holy by Jeberti people near Mendefera. Their history goes way beyond the simple historical narrations we hear today.

concerning their origin, let SGJ talk about it but I think they trace back their family lineage to Tigrai. What I sure about is that recently they were victims of Ethiopian warlords and forced them to migrate deep into the territories of Eritrea. But I would like to hear and learn more about the Jeberti Anthropology (Hi SGJ or saay7, is there any book that I can read in detail).

What I can also confidently say, one can not be jeberti by adoption. It is of familial in nature.

To link Jeberti and Habesha, well, yes they are Habesha. They belong to the geographical location, they are among the people who are described by Arabs as Habesha. And still they maintain what was said before about these people.

Dear Dayphi, don’t take it as an exclusive link between habesha and jebereti. Habesha also includes other people like Amhara and Tigriyna speaking of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Jeberti are one of them. One thing clear though, these is a cultural difference between these people who accepted to be called as Habesha.

Amhara people will have a different version of Habesha so as the Tigriyna speaking people. One common character they have though, their hospitality is magnificient.

Looking into the Amhara and the other Tigriyna speaking people except Jeberti, they are all war mongering people. Recenlty, Amharas fledged war without mercy and so are the Tigryna speaking of both Eritrea and Ethiopia.

@kokhobselam I don’t know why but habesha people like wars equally as they do for peace. The Koboro war junkies that we hear to day from like Semere Andom and Hayat Adem is of no exception. They like aggression and rumors of war. Can you enlighten me why they do so?

Dear Dayphi, finally, I would like to ask you about the fate of Jeberti lead movement of Alnahda Party. If PFDJ accepts Jeberti as an ethnic, will they stop their struggle and be incorporated to the PFDJ junta by liquidating their party? I am asking this because in one of their central objectives, the Jeberti issue is very significant.

[Originally written under comment section of Awate Forum under the article http://awate.com/absence-of-class-is-filled-by-something-lower/%5D by me, under nickname tes on 11.04.2015

Habeshanism and its Implication in today’s Eri-Ethio Politics

`[Originally written in the comment section of Awate Forum]

The lesson we can learn from the Habesha case is now very clear and well demarcated.

Habeshanism is a vague idea that has morphed nationality with identity, culture with tradition, way of living with way of thinking etc. It has spoiled the notion of nationilty to a level that the partisans of grand mama Ethiopia used to advance one of the historically closed plan to form Eri-Ethio merged country called “Ethiopia”.

Habeshanism became a way of communication in today’s Eri-Ethio politics. Fanaticism of of political hegemony surpased all the available scales of modern country make-up.

Let me first state my stand on the word ‘habesha”.

Normally I categorize the word “habesha” into two scales of references.

1. Habesha as a general term

2. Habesha as identity

Let me then start with the first.

1. Habesha as a general term

Habesha is a nick-name given by other people (the Arabs) to the people who were living and still are living within today’s geographical location. The area covers the highlands of Eritrea and Ethiopia. I can not say those people identified themselves as “habesha” till they started to migrate and started to be identified as “habesah” by the Arabs.

If we say, “Negro” to all Africans with black skin is a name or an identity exemplifier for people originated from Africa so is Habesha to the people who came from the mentioned above location of today’s Eritrea and Ethiopia.

As today people can proudly say, “I am Neger” so is the notion ‘”habesha” with a similar connotation.

Today, the word “habesha” is indiscriminatory outside the actual geographical location it was originated from. After such a long time, after migration intensified, people started to accept “Habesha” as a common identifier. Before people of the horn faced social catastrophe trade was so common between the people across the sea. The other society were mainly agriculturalists and had contacts with other people and the word habesha was unheard to them and hence never identified themselves as “habesh” but other.

2. Habesha as identity

The Arabs didn’t give the word “habesh” from no-where. There were distinctive characters. There were traits that made these people different from others. Values, tradition, culture, language, skills and properties could be mentioned to the least.

If one society can be ideintifed with certain characterstics, then it is obvious that a descriptive name, “adjective” will be given. Naming can be either originated from the people themselves or from outsiders. In case of Habesha, I didn’t come across any historical references that traces the origin of this name is owned by the people who are named as such. Rather there are well documented historical narrations who talk about these people by refering them as Habesh. Hence, habesha was originally a nick-name/adjective given to certain group of people with well defined characters.

Today, these people use different language: Tigrigna and non-tigrigna speaking people, different religion: christians and Moslems, different countries: Eritrea. and Ethiopia, and very recently more countries are lived by these people, USA, EU, Canada, The middle East, and deep to the rest of African countries.

Within Eritrea for example, some Tigrait speaking people and Bilen speaking people associate themselves with families who are originated from the land of Habesaha though they are not called as “habesha” specifically. Within the same language speaking people, for example, Tigrigna, there are people who don’t characterize themselves as Habesha but belong to other societies.

To conclude,

Habesha is a virtual identity that came into existence way before the Axumite kingdom era. It became a strong identifier after the introduction of Islam religion and the Arabs magnified the hospitality and justice of the habesha people. The habesha people are considered as honest and peace loving people and hence are well known about who they are and from where they come from.

Neither all Eritreans nor all Ethiopians are included within this notion. The people who are identifed long time ago as “habesha” by the Arabs today share big number among the Eritreans and Ethiopians.

In Eritrea, it is hard to know who identify himself as habesha. Jeberti for example, among the Tigrigna speaking moslem society of Eritrea have distinctive characters that make them appear different from the other Tigrigna speaking people. But I never heard them as describing themselves as hebesha people. Islam has hude influence on the living and language terminologies used by Jeberti. I know for example one of the holy places visited by Jeberti people near mendefera, “Abi-Adi” near Mendefera. I visited several times as my brother was living there during his military service days. What I observed was quite interesting and different. The Tigrigna language they speak has different dialect and lots of formal word use. In addition, dressing is different. Housing and and way of living is not different from the other people that I obseved.

I also know know a village in Anseba called “Mai-Deresse”, -Dembe-slam” to be specific,near Dersenai where Mustafa Nurhusien was born. The Jeberti people from Mai-Deresse” – today live mostly in Keren, some in Akordat and few in Asmara. I know these people very well because I was born in the same village. Probably SGJ and Saay7 may know about this village.

I am bringing these examples to mantion that I never heard the word “habesha” being iterated like what SGJ is now saying. All I know was, “they are proud Jeberti” not habesha. Indeed, the lineage of Jeberti is traced back straight to today’s Tigrai. As one can not be a jew through adoption, the same holds true to Jeberti.

To summarize:

Habeshanism is is like Negroism.

If Negroism is defined as “advancement of the interests of black people : advocacy of the cause of equal rights for black people”

Habeshanism can be defined as “Advancement of the interest of the Ethiopian and Eritrean people: advocacy of the cause of equal rights for Eritrean and Ethiopian people.”

Beyond that, it has nothing to do with historical definitions. It is a doctrine that merges two people together and shatters the existence of state-hood. People may honestly defend the word “habesha” like SGJ is doing but I can only say it is naivity. Habeshanism is now a corrupted doctrine, better an ideology that is aimed to unite people using one culture and tradition. Though in its true sense, it could have served for good as its historical records show, such as hospitality, peace loving, trust, lutual respect, etc, today, as a corrupted doctrine and a new ideology holding its pillar as an advancement of “Bigger mama Ethiopia” it buries all the good values of habesha and advances its mission through war and aggression.

Unless we are able to differentiate between hebesha as true values of its original meaning and respect the people who identify themselves as habesha and see beyond for an existence of two countries with their own rights to exist, habeshanism will be the next war of identity that will be errupted for the only dream that existed since the 19th C to form Mama Ethiopia.

The people of Eritrea and Ethiopia could have used the values of the original meaning of habeshanism as it is testified in the Holy Qur’an: the identity that was identified by Prophet Muhammad, the peace loving people and trusted people. It was neither a doctrine nor a political agenda. It was a name given to people to describe who they are, the name only given as an honor.

Therefore, I see Habesha at two levels. habesha as an identity given by other people but no one identified himself as such but accepted the description and as corrupted doctrine that is aimed to advance the hegemony of Mama Ethiopia that is aimed at engulfing the mind of state-hood to form ONE NATION called Ethiopia. I ACCEPT the original form but I reject the later.

A testimony:

Jeberti – people who are living inside Eritrea today are peace loving, trusted, honest, skillful and very religious people whom my family lived among and whom I shared some of their hospitality. these people before lived in the are identified by the Arabs as the land of habesha and hence are Habesha. They were exiled from their original place because of their religious beliefs. The good thing about these people, they carried their values and still they are the peace living, genereous people in their new land. They speak Tigrigna but with different dialect as it is heavily influenced by Islam Religion. But the true essence remains.

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++ I have different take on the Jeberti people grievances and I hope I will talk next time in broad but at this time I can say PFDJ has down played with them to fight for an identity. Jeberti are known people in Eritrea but the struggle they are doing to be identified as an Ethnic group is falling to the politics of PFDJ. In a free and democratic society, people have a free choice to be identified themselves in what ever they want. A right to organize and be identified as you want is one of the basic ammendments of human rights. Jeberti people, instead of fighting the dictatorial regime and system that denies all human rights, they are wasting valuable energy and time to define their identity. Jeberti identity is known to everybody. Hence, I call these people to end PFDJ and let basic human rights be installed.

In democratic countries for example like USA, if you want to be registered as an Ethnic group and bring a letter of claim, no one cares about the other details. As far as you fullfill the constitutional obligation, you are granted. It is in this notion that people have Eritrean community, different organizations etc. If I have a right to be called Tesfabirhan Weldegabir, I should have also a right to be identified as what ever I wanted to be at larger level.

Therefore, I call people to end PFDJ rule and fight for a democracy and a right for people to be identified in what ever they want. As far as the law of the land is democratic, anything that takes within the land by respecting the rights of the is right. PFDJ system will not allow it and hence let’s “WEED-OUT” PFDJ.