ጸርፍን ዲሞክራስያውን ቃልስን፡ ልሙዳት ጸርፊ ማሕበራዊ ብዙሓን – ወዲ ጸማቚት ስዋ ወዲ ሸርሙጣ ወዲ ድቓላ

ወዲ ጸማቚት ስዋ
ወዲ ሸርሙጣ
ወዲ ድቓላ

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ቃልሲ ማሕበር ጀበርትን(Jeberitayyah Brotherhood) ጸገማቱን

ክብርታት ማሕበር ኣሕዋት ጀበርቲ ካብ ልዕልናን ትምክሕትን ወጺኡ ምስ ክብርታይ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዝሳነ ኣካይዳ እንተለዱ ንኩሉ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ሰናይ ነገር እዩ። ሰላምን ምክብባርን ድማ ይፈጥር። በዚ ዝምራሕ ቃልሲ ድማ ንኩላትና የዐውት

ኣስተንትኖ፡ ፖለቲካ ኤርትራ ጸቢብ ናይ ጸቢብ ከም ዘሎ ምፍላጥ ከድልየና እዩ

ፖለቲካ ኤርትራ ጸቢብ ናይ ጸቢብ ከም ዘሎ ምፍላጥ ከድልየና እዩ። ብእልፊ ቀይሕ መስመር ዝመልአ ሓጹራት ፖለቲካ ተመሪሕካ ዝብጻሕ ሓርነት የሎን።

The origin of Ethnic and Tribal Social Groupings in Eritrea

This material was originally discussed in my extended article that tried to discuss the social grievances of the Bien speaking people of Eritrea. I extracted this material as a separate topic to highlight the necessity of the topic in today's politics. 

Ethnic Based Social Groupings

Postmodern Eritrea signifies the period of local lords that were successful in defending their own people and land by forming tribes and tribal confederations. In modern Eritrea, the then existing tribe-based groupings was thought an obsolete as fierce competitions and identity-based groupings had a negative impact in the then launched armed struggle(1961) against Ethiopian annexation to Eritrea.

Within ten(10) years experiences, Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was unable to overcome the tribal feelings and groupings that favor family based promotions and favors among the freedom fighters. This led to bitter sectarian divisions. Eritreans who belonged to their respective social groupings were unable to develop a conscious mind that can trespass their historical pride. As a result, in 1970 some freedom fighters who had bitter experiences with ELF left the front and succeeded in forming a new revolutionary umbrella called People’s Liberation Forces (PLF – ህዝባዊ ሓይልታት).

PLF wrote a Manifesto, «We and Our Objectives ንሕናን ዕላማናን» that explains who they are and what their objective is. It is within this manifesto that PLF came with new social innovation that grouped Eritreans based on the language they speak. The clustering was motivated by the then famous Communist/Socialist idea of social groupings based on similar trends.

These newly introduced social groupings were sought to be inclusive in its time as it had the potential to eradicate tribal pride and identity-based politics. According to its primary objective, indeed it was a successful social innovation in its time and served its purpose well.

As people started to embrace this new social identity as their own, Eritreans came to understand that it as it has a serious potential to destroy the basic social entity of Eritreans, the family based clan system that has kept all the secrets of Eritrean identity and history. Hence, the spoken language based ethnicity did not take time to be challenged by those who were strongly affiliated with their family. They have witnessed an identity crisis looming in their doorsteps. Not only this, during the revolution era, one language became so dominant and others became in danger. Plus, no matter what language they speak, Eritreans are interrelated. They found themselves divided into three or four ethnic groups.

With time, these politically imposed divisions developed into new social grievances. Gradually, politically conscious started to oppose it and they found themselves in limbo and those at high ranks were exposed to expulsion from their ranks and camouflaged secret assassination. As a result, they were unable to mobilize Eritreans. In addition, the circumstances did not allow open calls to boycott the newly imposed ethnicity. In fact, Eritreans had no say when such system was introduced. Many thought it is based on good intentions and they found it hard to think it was imposed politically in order to suite a specific political purpose that will change their social fabric in the long term.

After independence, social grievances based on the imposed social groupings did not take to emerge. Some do not want to be clustered in one group simply because they speak the same language as had other cultural or traditions which they differ from(Typical example, Jeberti people), others wanted to retain their own historical name and groupings (Example – Asawurta), others had different historical claims that were not reconciling them to be clustered in one(Example – the Tigrait and Bilen speaking communities), others wanted to retain their historical regional based clustering instead of language is spoken (Example – The Kebessa people which were divided into three regions).

The Bilen speaking communities started to oppose the notion of Bilen ethnic group when an official called them to come out and demonstrate for the unity of Blin people. This gave a new phase to post-independence internal politics of the Bilen ethnic group(which is my main topic). The Asawurta people did not accept their groupings under the notion of «Saho ethnic group» and opposed the «form» prepared during the Eritrean referendum (1993) as they were forced to fill «Saho» for their ethnic affiliation. Many were put in prison, some were intimidated, others left the country as they did not want to be called Saho. The Jeberti also opposed being called members of  «the Tigrigna ethnic group». Those who tried to demand the then transitional government were put in prison. Many similar circumstances had brought ethnic-based groupings as «discriminatory».

Although Eritreans did not stop from expressing their grievances, ethnic-based social groupings did not stop from evolving into a default new social identity. The ruling regime, PFDJ, who is the successor of the revolutionary front, has invested so much in this endeavor through intensive cultural and traditional activities. All cultural performances and public images are tuned to promote ethnicity. And, they are considered an icon of «unity in diversity».

At a political level, PFDJ has a structure whose sole purpose is to promote ethnic-based cultures and traditions. The investment is intentionally magnified to promote the nine ethnic groups to be the basic entity of uniting national pride and identity.to some degree, PFDJ succeeded in deceiving each ethnic group is unique in its culture, tradition, and history. Many writings are produced that promote the identity based on fabricated historical narrations. Many academic works that are produced after independence are not hesitating to refer the politically charged history of Eritrean ethnic groups as if they existed for thousands of years. Though the majority of Eritreans are Kushitic in origin(more than 90%), simply because of their spoken Semitic language, they are treated as Semitic origin people. Example – the Tigrait and Tigrigna speaking Eritrean communities. In fact, the only ethnic group which is exclusively Semitic is Rashaida. These groups are recent immigrants from the Arab Peninsula who have settled there recently. They speak Arabic and their culture is pure Arab.

To the Eritrean people’s disgrace, some politicians have bought this politically social groupings and included it in their political constitution so that their future democratic Eritrea to be formed by representatives who represent each ethnic group. To impose their political agenda, there are political organizations in the opposition camp which bear their name based on existing ethnicity. Those who consider themselves discriminated have established a political party that secures their demand and at the same time to have a representative position like the rest(Example – the Jeberti. If this objective comes to be true, Eritrea will have a government based Ethnic federalism.

Tribal-based Social Groupings

The other groupings that existed for more than one thousand years unbroken are the Tribal system. Most Eritrean tribes recall their history since the 14thC. This is the time that corresponds with the fall of the Kushite Dynasty that ruled today’s Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. The last Kushite Dynasty, Zagwe Dynasty was successful in uniting all Kushites of the horn of Africa. The Agaws were the ruling class and each Kushite community had a form of «Federal local government». The Zagwe Dynasty emerged after the fall of the Axumite kingdom. It has succeeded in securing the land conquered by Axumite kingdom while protecting itself from the then religious war that played a great role in the destruction of Axum.

Zagwe Dynasty restored rule of law in the Horn of Africa for almost 400 years (AD. 919 – 1270) until another kingdom called «The Solomonic Kingdom of Abyssinia» emerged in Showa. Those former territories of the Zagwe Dynasty changed themselves into small local states. These local stated emerged as the Abyssinian kings were unable to secure rule of law. In fact, former Kushites were exposed to persecution by the newly then fabricated Abyssinian identity – the Solomonic lineage. The Kushites did not welcome this new identity imposed by Abyssinian rulers and the Horn of Africa became a fragmented small local state governed by tribal chiefs/lords/Shums.

These local states are structured on tribal groups. Each tribe is ruled by its Customary law which was coded by mixing their experiences from Axumite and Zagwe kingdom. Today, there are more than 18 Customary laws in Eritrea. Some are 800 years old, while others are less than 60 years. However, all tribal customary laws have some similarity in origin and coding style though they vary in their composition.  The customary laws gave tribal groups a power to conduct their own affairs and secure their territories from external invasion by uniting each family(clan) by imposing the rule of law of the land into their own communities. Not only this, they formed an alliance with neighboring tribes through social, cultural, economic and political relationships.

These relationships gave rise to a very strong social lineage, cross-cultural exchanges, economic integration, and political alliance. Though each tribe is formed from uniquely related clans, often direct family links, through time, small tribes started to unite to form a bigger tribal confederation. Typical example are the Bet Tarqe, Bet Tawqe, 12 Neged, Mensae of Senhit, Asawurta, Minifere, Hazo, Irob, of Semhar and Akaleguzay, Beni Amir from Barka, Marya, Habab, etc od Sahel, and the Afar/Adal Sultanate in the Dankalia, Adkeme-Meliga in Seraye, Logo-Chewa from Hamassien, Nara and Kunama from Setit-Gash-Barka region, etc.

These tribes have succeeded in forming a united force, which is now morphed into an identity. For example, A bilen speaking Eritrean who belong to Bet Tarqe(Tarqe tribe), he/she is proud to call himself, «I am from Bet Tarqe» even though he/she knows his/her direct family lineage. Each clan within the tribe knows its lineage but it considers itself as part of the larger unity.

Challenges of Ethnic based Social Groupings

Language had never been an issue among the Eritrean society. In fact, Eritreans were multi-linguistic as they were exposed to their neighboring tribes who happen to speak different languages. If they start to live among other larger tribe, the family integrates fully. This is the reason you find Eritreans who trace their family lineage to a different geographical location but you find them speaking different languages than their claimed family does. Not only language but also most Eritreans did not have a problem in changing their religion. For example, my family[the Author] are living in more than five(5) regions of Eritrea, speak a local language, follow local religion and fully assimilated with the local culture and tradition. What is not missing is their family name. The only difference with the local inhabitants is their family name otherwise, they claim themselves to be part of the local tribe and live according to the local customary law. However, they are also free to follow their family customary law if they wanted too. But, this is not easy to be followed as it becomes the source of conflict whenever some issues arise.

Under the newly imposed ethnic-based social groupings, the aforementioned social system was destroyed. There is no rule of law to be respected, the family name is not retained and people who speak different languages started to live among the local people. The one who started to live among the local dwellers has no interest to integrate. Most importantly, because of war and then massive demobilization, the social demography of Eritrea has changed dramatically for the last sixty(60) years. One language became dominant (the Tigrigna). Hence, the social structure that existed for centuries is put in danger.

Not only this, as the ruling regime is considered as the one dominated by Tigrigna speakers, the family link(clan) lost its importance. Hence, the ruling class is considered from the Tigrigna ethnic group, no matter what is his/her original mother language. This was a new hate based social grievance is raising which is accusing any Tigrigna speaker. As a result, many Eritreans who speak other languages other than Tigrigna are developing the notion of «anyone who speaks Tigrigna is an oppressor». In fact, the truth is different. The ruling regime is composed of all Eritreans who have different mother language but as Tigrigna is now by default an official national language, everyone who works under the ruling regime is obliged to speak Tigrigna.

Another challenge is an identity crisis. Generally speaking, Eritrean people are categorized into three based on their origin. These are Kushitic, Semitic and Nilotic. It is true that Eritreans belong to these three groups. But, who are the Kushites, the Semitic and Nilotic people in Eritrea is? Of course, this is not to classify people based on their origin or identity. Rather, my objective is to show the composition and diversity of Eritrean people. At the same time, it is to expose the politically motivated narration of the origin of Eritrean people.

Eritreans who speak Tigrigna and Tigrait(the majority), are categorized as “Semitic people”. But the truth is, most of them are Kushites. The notion of Semitic came in the political arena when Eritreans were trying to distance themselves from Ethiopia. During the struggle for independence, Ethiopia’s claim for Eritrea was mainly focused on the “ONENESS” of  Eritrean and Ethiopian people. As a political argument, the uniqueness of language spoken, its Semitic origin, and the presence of Arabs and Arabic language along the coastal line were some of the strongest defense arguments. Materials written by Eritrean revolutionaries started to change the truth and after independence, no change has been done to correct it. Others followed the same argument to narrate their origin mainly because of the religious affiliations. As a result, the majority of Eritreans nowadays claim that they belong either to the Jews family of Israel, the Arab family of the Arab Peninsula, especially, Yemen.

Identity-based politics can be resolved if each one feels secure in his/her identity. It is in line to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(1948) which is against discrimination based on origin. And, there is no need to claim other identities as there no human identity superior to the other; We are all born equal and we have equal rights.

Generally speaking, I believe that Eritrean have maintained their identity though they have might have adopted a new language, culture, tradition or religion. In fact, their culture, tradition, language, and religion remained unchanged for thousands of years. Major demographic changes happened for the last 100 – 200 years simply because of external interferences. Among those who have evolved in a dramatic way are the Bilen speaking communities. Bilen speaking communities have preserved their Kushite identity for centuries. However, since 1850, they have gone through unprecedented social progress which has changed the people forever. I think it will be hard to think any intervention can stop this divergence. Some have gone too far to claim that they are Arab descendants and have their mother language and put in the Semitic speaking people category. The truth is, Bilen people belong to the Kushite people of Africa.

Therefore, it will be great if Blin Speaking Communities are fully aware of their  Kushites Identity before it became too late to correct it, no matter what language they are speaking or religion they belong too, together they have to write their rich, diverse and ancient history. Blin speaking Kushites have to trace their genealogical line with their brothers in the highland of Eritrea, Barka, and the Sahel as well as their brothers in Semhar and Denkalia. Not only within in Eritrea but also with the Agaws who are living in Ethiopia.

The good thing is their family lineage with Agaw people who are currently living in Seraye and Hammassien is not yet broken. Names of many villages, mountains, rivers, and historical cities are still in their original language.

I belong to the Agaw descendant. It is well documented that in the 14thC, My ancestors migrated from Saqota(Lasta) to the highland of Eritrea via Agame region of Tigray when the Agwe dynasty divided into local states. I am lucky that my family genealogy is well documented. From the highland of Eritrea, my great great grandfather, which I am currently referring as my “Family Name”, with his first name Habtes(Beynu), left his home village Zaul and settled in Shieb – Seleba. Habtes had three sons. I am the 10th generation from Habtes.

Therefore, it would be great if each Eritrean family is able to draw its family lineage so it can help from any kind of identity crisis, be it today or for the coming generations. In addition, it helps in the liberation of each individual from any kind of social oppressions which is carried under the banner of social group or group right. It is only in this manner that we can keep our freedom free from all kinds of group oppressions.

ፖለቲካዊ ልዕልና( Political Supermacy) Saleh “Gadi” Johar”

Why Saleh changed his real name to a coded name?

ሳልሕ “ቓዲ” ጆሃር ስለምንታይ እዩ ስሙ ናብ ዝተመስጠረ ቅጽል ስም ቀይርዎ?

Saleh “Gadi” Johar

Gadi means

Gadi is the type of friend who is cool with anything. he's funny in an inappropriate way and loyal and awesome. He will go out of his way to help others. He might not show what he thinks all the time because it's probably for the better so you don't get offended.

This says a lot about Saleh’s political thinking(ideology) and approach.

For more, please follow my perspective about Saleh “Gadi” Johar’s politics in the facebook video.

ጀበርቲ ኤርትራውያን ምስ ኣሕዋቶም ጀበርቲ ኢትዮጵያ ርኽክባቶም የደላድሉ

መበገሲ ሓሳብ

ምንጪ: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=717167858639042&id=100010375026633

ኢትዮጵያዊያኑን ጀበርቲዎችንና ኤርትራዊያኑን ጀበርቲዎች በአንድ መድረክ ያስተሳሰረዉ በአዳማ ከተማ ራስ ሆቴል የተካሄደዉ በአርጎባ ህዝብ የስያሜ ለዉጥ ላይ ያተኮረ ጥናታዊ ጽሑፍ እና የዉይይት መድረክ! – ይሄን ይመስል ነበር፡፡ ያንብቡት እዚያዉ የነበሩ ያህል ይሰማዎታል! 

ወንድም ሙኽታር ዑመር እና አባዬ ዉይይቱ እስኪጀመር በባህል ቡድኑ በመታገዝ መድረኩን የሆነ ሞቅታ ያለዉ ድባብ እየቸሩት ነዉ፡፡ ‹‹ኑሩ ሠላም ዓላ፣ ሐቢቢ ሠላም ዓላ›› በሚሉና ‹‹አላሁ ዳኢሙ፣ ዳኢሙ›› በሚሉ ነሺዳ ጠቀስ ጨዋታዎች፣ በነበረዉ ጣዕመ ዜማ የጥንቱን የአባቶቻችንን ያን የከፍታና የደስታ ዘመን እያስታወስን ጥቂትም ቢሆን የኋልዮሽ ተጓዝን!! ያ .. ዘመን ዉዱ ዘመን!! …

የመድረኩ ተሳታፊዎች በተለያዩ የሀገራችን ክፍል የሞኖሩ የአርጎባ ተወላጆች፣ ኤርትራዊያን ጀበርቲዎች፣ ሙሁራኖች፣ ባላሀብቶችና ወጣቶች የነበሩ ሲሆን ጥናታዊ ጽሑፉም የሚያጠነጥነዉ በአርጎባ ህዝብ ማንነት እና በማሕበረሰቡ መጠርያ ስያሜ ላይ ነዉ፡፡ ጥናታዊ ጽሑፉ ተዘጋጅቶ የቀረበዉ እንቁ በሆኑ እና ታላቅ ተስፋ በተጣለባቸዉ አቶ ሙሐመድ አቡበክር፣ በኑረላህ ከድርና እንዲሁም በዩሱፍ ሙሐመድ ከፍተኛ ድካምና ልፋት በኋላ የተዘጋጀ መሆኑና ጥናታዊ ጽሑፉም ከ3ዓመት በላይ እደፈጀ ከመድረኩ ተገልጧል፡፡ የዉይይት መድረኩን በዋናነት የመሩት በድሬዳዋ ዩኒቨርሲቲ የስነ-ምድር ተመራማሪ የሆኑት ረዳት ፕሮፌሰር ተማም አወል በሽር ናቸዉ፡፡ 

ከወልቃይት ልዩ ቦታዋ ‹ኮረም› በመባል ከምትታወቀዉና ታላላቅ ዑለማኦችን ካፈለቀችዉ ምድር የተገኙት የራያዉ አርጎባ ታላቁ ዓሊም ሸይኽ አሕመደል ኩረማ (አሕመድ አል-ኮረም) ፕሮግራሙን በሚማርክ ዱዓ መከፈቱን ካበሰሩ በኋላ ወደ ዋናዉ ዱዳይ ተገብቷል፡፡

#በጥናታዊ_ዉስጥ_የቀረቡ_ሀሳቦች!!
የመጀመርያዉ ዘዉግ ስለ አርጎባ ማሕበረሰብ በጥቂቱ የሚያስዳስስ ክፍል ሲሆን፤ እሱም የአርጎባ ሕዝብ በቀደሙት ጊዜያት ነገደ እስላም፣ ጀበርት፣ የይፋት ህዝቦች፣ ወላስማዎች፣ የይፋትና የሀረርጌ ሙስሊም በሚል ይጠራና ይታወቅ እንደነበር የሚያረገነዝብ ነዉ፡፡ 

በሁለተኛ ደረጃ በጀበርት ስያሜና ታሪካዊ ዳራ ላይ የተደረገዉ የጥናቱ ዋና ክፍል ሲሆን ረዘም ያላ ቦዲ ያካተተ ክፍል ነዉ፡፡ ስለ ጀበርት መነሻና መድረሻ እንዲሁም ማነነትና ጠቅለል ያለ ይዘት በዕለቱ ከቀረቡ ጥናታዊ ጽሑፎች በመንተራስ ከማስታወሻ ማሕደሬ ካሰፈርኳቸዉና የጻፍኳቸዉ አንዳንድ ነጥቦች የቃላት እርምት በማድረግ በምሽቱ ክፍለ ጊዜ እንደማቀርብ ቃል እየገባሁ አሁን በእለቱ ወደ ወደ ተሰጡ ሀሳብና አስተያየቶች እንዲሁም ጥያቄዎች ላምራቹህ፡-

#ከመድረኩ_ተሳታፊዎች_የተነሱ_አስተያቶችና_ጥያቄዎች፡-
ሀሳብና አስተያየቶች እንዲሁም ጥያቄዎች የተሰነዘረዉ በጥዋቱ ክፍለ ጊዜ ሲሆን በከሰዓቱ ክፈለ ጊዜ ማብራሪያና መልስ ተሰጥቶባቸዋል፡፡ የመጀመርያዉ አስተያየት ሰጪ አንደበተ-ርቱዑና እጅግ አዋቂ ብሎም ተናጋሪ የሆኑት ከላይ ቀደም ብለን ያወሳናቸዉ ዓሊም ሸህ አሕመደል ኩረማ (አሕመድ ኢብራሒም) የአርጎባ ህዝብ ታሪክና ማንነቱ ተቀብሮና አቧራ ለብሶ የኖረዉ እንዲሁም መታወቅ ያለበትን ያህል ያልታወቀዉ ታሪኩ በዓረብኛ ቋንቋ ተፅፎ በመቀመጡ መሆኑን ገልጸዉ መጽሐፍቶቹ ብዙሀን በሚረዳዉ በሚገባው ቋንቋ መከተብ እና መጻፍ እንዳለባቸዉ ወጣቶቹን አስገንዝበዋል፡፡ ለዚህም የአርጎባንና አርጎባዎች ታሪክ የያዙ በርካታ ኪታቦችን ማንበባቸዉን፥ ሆኖም ግን ያነበቧቸዉ መጽሐፍቶች በዐረብኛ የተደረሱ መሆናቸዉን አስምረዉ ብዞዎች ግን ሳያዉቋቸዉ ለመቅረቱም ይህ አንዱና ዐብይ ምክንያት አድርገዉ ገልጸዋል፡፡ ኢትዮጵያ ዉስጥ አሉ የተባሉ መላ ዑለማኦች አርጎባዎች እና ከአርጎባ ማንነት ጋር ተያያዥነት ያላቸዉ ናቸዉ፣ አኔም ጀበርቲነቴን እና አርጎብነቴን በጣም እወደዋለሁ፤ ሆኖም ግን እነዚያን የአርጎባ ዑለማኦችን የምረጠራቸዉ አርጎባ ብዬ ሳይሆን ‹ሸኾች› ብዬ ነዉ፣ እነርሱ የሁሉም ሀብትና ንብረት ናቸዉና በማለት ታላቅ ይዘት ያለዉ መልእክት አስተላልፈዋል፡፡ ሲቀጥሉምስለሆነም ‹እራሳቸዉን የደበቁ ለዘለዐለሙ ይረሳሉ› በማለት አርጎባ ተቀበረ ማለት ኢትዮጵያ ተቀበረች ማለት ነዉ ሲሉም አክለዋለዉ ወጣቶች ዲናቸዉንና ታሪካቸዉን ጠብቀዉ እንዲሄዱ ዘክረዋል፡፡

በሁለተኛ ደረጃ ከመድረኩ ተሳታፊዎች የተሠነሱት ሀሳብና አስተያቶ ዉስጥ ጥናቱ ለእያንዳንዱ ተሳታፊ በሰነድ ለምን ሳይቀርብ ቀረ፣ ሰነዱ በእጃችን ቢደርሰን ኖሮ መስተካከል ያለባቸዉ እና ክፍተት ያላቸዉን አንዳንድ ጉዳዮች መመልከት እንችል ነበር፡፡ ጥናት አቅራቢዎቹ በጥናቱ ወቅት የገጠማቸዉን ቻሌንጆች እና ፈተናዎች ምንም እንኳን በመድረኩ ላይ የገለጹ ቢሆንም በሰነዱ ላይ ያለማካተታቸዉ ግን እንደ ክፍተት ተነስቷል፡፡ ይህንንም አስተያየት ተከትሎ የመድረኩ አዘጋጆች የጥናቱን ሰነድ በሀርድ ኮፒ እያንዳንዱ ተሳታፊ እጅ ለማድረስ ችለዋል፡፡ የመድረኩ አዘጋጆች ተሯሩጠዉ ላዘጋጁትና ላደረጉት ቅጽበታዊ ምላሽ እኔ እንደራሴ እራሴን ወክዬ ሳላመሰግናቸዉ አላልፍም፡፡ በተለይ ወንድም ኑርሑሴን ሙሐመድን እና ሌሎችንም ..

ከሰሜን ሸዋ ቀወት ወረዳ የመጡ ተሳታፊ ብዙ ቁም ነገር ላቸዉ ንግግሮችን ካደጉ በኋላ ታሪካችን በዓብኛ መጻፉ በአንድ ጎኖ ጠቅሟል፡፡ አጼዎቹ ቋንቋዉን ባለመረዳታቸዉ እንዳቃጠል፣ እስከመጨረሻዉ እንዳያጠፉብን ረድቷል፡፡ ለአብነትም ይይፋትና የአዳል ሱልጣኔትን ታሪክ የያዘዉ ፉትሑል ሀበሽ መጽሐፍ በቤቱ የተገኘበት ሰዉ ይገደል እንደነበር በማስታወስ፡፡ ይህንንም ተከትሎ በፕሮግራሙ መገባደጃ አካቢበ ሸህ አሕመደል ኩረማ የአንድ ታላቅ ዓሊምን ስም ጠቅሰዉ እና 500 ኪታብ ያህል የጻፉ ሰዉ መሆናቸዉን ገልጸዉ ከዚያ ሁሉ ግን ዛሬ ላይ የሚገኙት 25ቱ ብቻ ናቸዉ፤ ሌሎቹን መጽሐፍቶች አጼዎቹ እንዳያወድሙባቸዉ በመስጋት ከመሬት ስር ቀብረዋቸዉ አልፈዋል፡፡ እነሱን ፈልገን ፈልጎ የማግኘቱ ስራ የእኛ ድርሻ ነዉ ሲሉም አክለዋል፡፡ እንዲሁም ሸህ ሙሀመድ ዑመር (ከመኮይ) የተለያዩ ገንቢ የሆኑና በታሪክና በቅርስ ደረጃ ያሉ የየአካባቢያቸዉን ሁነቶች ገልጸዋል፡፡ ሆኖም ሀሳቦቻቸዉ ከርእሱ ጋር ብዙም ተያያዝ ባለመሆኑ በዝርዝር ለማቅረብ ይሰፋብናል ብለን ትተነዋል፡፡ ከዚህ በመቀጠል ለጥናቱ አቅራቢዎችና ለመድረኩ ጥያቄ ነክ ሀሳቦችን ያቀረበዉ ወጣት ጃዕፈር ሸህማሕሙድ ሲሆን ጥያቄዎቹም የሚከተሉት ናቸዉ፡፡

1. ጥናቱ በተለያዩ በዉጪ ሀገራት የሚኖሩ መላ ጀበርቲያኑን እንዴት ለማስተሳሰር እንደታሰበ ምንምድነዉ ያነሳዉ ሀሳብ
2. የጥናቱ ጥቅምና ፋይዳ ምንድን ነዉ
3. ስለማንነት ስናነሳ ከፖለቲካም ጋር ተያያዥ ነዉና አርጎባ ከመባላችን ይልቅ ጀበርቲ መባላችን ፖለቲካዊ ጥቅሙ ምንድነዉ
4. ከዚህ ጥናት ይልቅ ሪፎርም ማድረግ አይቀድምም ወይ ሪፎርሙስ ለጥናቱ ግብኣት ሆነዉ አልነበር ወይ
5. በአማራ፣ በአፋር፣ በሀረሪ እና በኦሮምያ ክልል ያለዉ አርጎባ አንድ አይነት ስነልቦና የለዉም፡፡ ይህንን ነገር ለምን መፍታት አልተቻለም፡፡ ጀበርቲ መባላችን ለዚህ መፍትሔ ሆነዋል ወይ የሚሉ በርካታ ጥያቄዎችን ያነሳ ሲሆን
ሌሎች ተሳታፊዎች ደግሞ በስያሜዉ ዙርያ፡- ጀበርቲ የአርጎባ ስያሜ ብቻ አይደለም ይልቁንም የወል ስም ተደርጎ ተወስዶ ተመልክተናል፡፡ ይህም መላዉ የሐበሻ ሙስሊሞች ጀበርቲ ተብለዉ ይጠሩም እንደነበር በታሪክ ተነግሯልና ጥናቱ ይህንን ነገር እንዴት ይመረምረዋል የአርጎባ ህዝብስ ስሙን ምን ያህል ያዉቀዋል ከብሔረሰብ ወደ ማህበረሰብ አይለዉጠንም ወይ የሚሉ ወሳኝ ይዘት ያላቸዉን ነጥቦች ለመድረኩ ወርዉረዋል፡፡ ከተሳታፊዎች የተነሱ ሌሎች ጥያቄዎች ይህ ጥናት በማሕበረሰቡ ዘንድ ዉዝዥንብር አይፈጥርም ወይ ይህን ሀሳብ ለምን አሁን ላይ ማንሳት አስፈለገ ከዚህ በፊት ሌላ መሰራት የነበረበት ነገር (ሪፎርሙ) መካሄድ አልነበረበት ነበር ወይ 
ሌሎች አካባቢ ከሚኖሩ የጀበርቲ ህዘቦች ጋር ያለን የቋንቋ፣ የባህል፣ እና የማንነት መመሳሰል (ልክ በኤርትራ፣ በጅቡቲ እና በኢትዮጵያ የሚኖሩ አፋሮች ያላቸዉን የቋንቋ እና የባህል መመሳሰል) አይነት እኛስ አለን ወይ ጀበርቲ ተብሎ ለመቀየር የተፈለገበት ምክንያት አርጎባ ተብለን ያጣነዉ ነገር ምንድ ነዉ እና ነዉ የሚሉ በርካታ ሀሳብና አስተያየቶች የቀረቡ ሲሆን በከሰዓቱ ፕሮግራም ከጥናት አቅራቢዎቹ እና ከመድረክ መሪዎቹ እንዲሁ ከተሳታፊዉም ጭምር እንደሚከተለዉ መልስ ተሰጥቶባቸዋል፡፡

#ለተነሱ_ጥያቄዎች_የተሰጡ_መልሶች
ረዳት ፕሮፌሰር ተማም አወል በሽር የጥናቱ ጥቅምና ፋይዳ ምንድነዉ በሚለዉና አርጎባ ተብሎ ከመጠራት የታጣዉ ነገር እንዲሁም ጀበርቲ ተብሎ የሚገኘዉ ፖለቲካዊ ፋይዳ ምንድነዉ፣ በተለያዩ ክልሎችና ሀገራት ያለዉን የተለያየ ስነልቦና ያለዉን ህዝብ ምን የሚፈይደዉ ነገር አለ ለሚሉት በርካታ ተያያዝ ጥያቄዎች በሰጡት ማብራሪያ እንዳሉት፡- ጉዳዩ ጥቅም የማግኘት እና ያለማግኘት ብቻ ሳይሆን ጉዳዩ ትክክለኛ ማንነትን ፈልጎ የማግኘት ነዉ፡፡ ጥናቱ ዉጤት ቢገኝለትም ዉጤት ነዉ፤ ባይገኝለትም ዉጤት ነዉ፡፡ ጥናቱ ከመነሻ ነጥባችን ጋር ማች ካደረገ ትክክለኛና የኛ የሆነዉ የጥንት መጠርያ ስያሜያችን ጀበርት መሆኑ ነዉና በጀበርቲነታችን እንድንቀጥል ያደርገናል፤ ጀበርቲነታን ቀጠለ ማለት ደግሞ በዉጪም በሀገር ዉስጥም ካለ ሰፊሁ ከመላዉ የጀበርቲ ህዝብ ጋር ያለን የዝምድና ትስስር ተጠናክሮ ቤተሰባዊ መዋቅራችን ዳግም እንዲያድግ ደርገዋል፡፡ ለዚህም ማሳያ ዛሬ ከኤርትራ ምድር የተገኙት እኒህ ኤርትራዊያን የጀበርቲ ወንድሞቻችንና ስጋዎቻችን ማሳያ ናቸዉ፡፡ ይህ ይሆናል ብሎ ያሰበስ ማን ነበር በማለት አብራርተዋል፡፡ ሆኖም ይህ ጥናት ከመነሻ ነጥቡ ሀሳብ ጋር ማች ካላደረገ አርጎብነታችንን አርጎብነት ነዉ ማለት ነዉ እና አርጎብነቱን እንድቀጥለዉ ያደርገናል ስለዚህ ጥናቱ ተጠናቆ ሲያልቅ ዉጤቱ ምንም ሆነ ምን አዎንታዊነትም ይኑረዉ አሉታዊነት በራሱ ዉጤት ነዉ ሲሉ በሰላ ምሁራዊ አንደበት አብራርተዋል፡፡

ይህን ጥናት ለምን ዛሬ ላይማሄድ አስፈለገ፣ አሁን ሪፎርም የምናደርግበት ጊዜ አልነበር ወይ እና ለምን እስከዛሬ ያልተደረገ ነገር ዛሬ ማድረግ አስፈለ ፣ከጥናቱ ይልቅ ሪፎሙ አልነበር ወይ መቅደም የነበረበት የሚሉ ጥያቄዎች ለተነሱት የተሰጡ ምላሾች ዙርያ የድርጅ ከፍተኛ አመራሮች ጥናቱ ከ3 ዓመት በፊት የተጀመረ መሆኑን ገልጸዉ ቀድሞም ሲራ የቖየና ዛሬ የታሰበበት ያለመሆኑን አስረድተዋል፡፡ ዛሬ ላይ የአብይ ዘመን ነዉ፣ የነጻነት ዘመን ነዉ አርጎባነታችንን ጀበርቲነታችንን እንደፈለግን ሳንሸማቀቅ መናገር የቻልንበት ወቅት ላይ እንደመገኘታችን በዶ/ር አብይ ዘመን በስሙ ስያሜም ሆኖ ሌሎች ተያያዥ ጉዳዮች ላይ በነጻነት የፈለግነዉ የምንችልበት ዘመን መሁኑም አንዱ ነዉ፡፡ አርጎባነት መጤ፣ ኢትዮጵያዊ ያልሆነ እና በኢትዮጵያዊነቱ እንዲሸማቀቅ ያደጉን ባስ ሲል ከዚያም የባሰ ሌሎች የእኛን ስነልቦና የሚሸረሽሩ ቃላቶች ሲሰነዘሩብን ስንሰደብበት የኖርን ስማችን መሆናችን ማወቅ እና መረዳት ተገቢ ነዉ፡፡ ለዚህም ወደምስራቁ ክፍል አርጎባዉን ቡዳ እያሉ መኖራቸዉ እና ኩሩዉን ማንነቱን ወደራሰቸዉ ማንነት ሲለዉጡት መኖሩን ተጠቅሷል፡፡ ይህ ከድርጅታዊ አሰራር ጋር እና ከሪፎርሙ ጋር ምንም የሚያገናኘዉ ነገር የለም ሁሉም በየፈርጁ የሚጓዝ ጉዳይ ነዉ በሚል መልስ የተሰጠ ሲሆን የመድረኩ ተሳታፊዎችም በምላሹ ሞቅ ያለ ድግግሞሽ ያለዉ ጭብጨባ ችረዋል፡፡ 

ከሌሎች የጀበርቲ ማሕበረሰብ ጋር ምን አይነት የቋንቋ መመሳሰልና ሌሎች ነገራቶች ኖረዉን ነዉ ትስስሮሹ የሚደረገዉ፡፡ በኤርትራ፣ በኢተዮጵያና በጅቡቲ የሚኖሩ አፋሮች በቋንቋና በባህል ስለሚመሳሰሉ ለመተሳሰር አልተቸገሩኝ እያጋር ያለዉ ትስስር ምንድን ነዉ፡፡ በአምስት ሀገራት የምንኖር ጀበርቲዎች እንደመሆናን ነገሩን ዉዥንብር እንዲፈጠርብ አያደርገዉም ወይ ጀበርቲ ከአርጎባ ማሕበረሰብ መጠርያ ስምነት ባለፈም የወል ስም ሆኖ ተጠቅሶ ተስተዉሏልና ነገሩን እንዴት መረመራቹሁት በርካታ ተያያዥ እኛ ተዛማጅ ጥያቄና አስተያቶች መልስ የሰጡት አዘጋጆቹ ብቻ ሳይሁኑ የመድረኩም ተሳታፊዎች ጭምር ነበሩ፡፡ ከነሱም ዉስጥ ኤርትራዊዉ ጀበርቲ ሙሰጠፋ ዓብዱልዓዚዝ በሰጡት ምላሽ ሁሉም ጀበርቲዎች ባህላዊ አለባበሳቸዉ ነቢዩ ሙሐመድ ይጠቀሙት የነበረዉ አይነት አለባበስ ነዉ፡፡ የኤርትራ ጀበርቲ ሴቶች የሚጠቀሙት የሴች አለባበስ ከኢትዮጵያዊያኑ የሚመሳሰል ነዉ፡፡ በታሪክ በቅርስ በዘር ሀረግ ተያያዝ ነን ካሉ በኋላ ዓረቦች 22 ያህል እራሳቸዉን ያቻሉ የዐረብ ሀገራት ቢኖራቸዉም ሁሉም ሲጠሩ ዓረብ ተብለዉ ነዉ፡፡ እኛም እንዲሁ መሆን እንችላለን፡፡ ጀበርት የሕብረ ብሔር ማዕቀፋችን ነዉ እና በዚህ ማዕቀፍ ዉስጥ ህብረት መስርተን የተለያዩ ፖለቲካል ኢኮኖሚካል እና ሶሻል ትብብራችንን ማጽናት እንችላለን በማለት የተናገሩ ሲሆን ከአማራ ክልል ሰሜን ሸዋ ዞን ከቀወት ወረዳ የመጡ ሸምገል ያሉ ተሳታፊ ደግሞ ቋንቋ አይለያየንምም፡፡ ቋንቋ አንዱ የመግባቢያ ድልድይ እንጂ ሌላ አይደለም፡፡ ዋናዉ ነገር እኛነታችንን እና እሴቶቻችንን ዳግም ማጠናከር እና ማጎልበቱ ላይ ነዉ መሰራት ያለበት ሲሉ ሁላችንንም የሚያሳምን ምላሽ ሰጥተዋል፡፡ የወርጂ ብሔር ተወላጅ የሆኑት ፈይሰል ወርጂ ማሕበረሰብ ምልሰተ ነገዱ እዚሁ ይፋት ተካታች መሆኑን አምነዉ ስልጤዉ፣ ሀረሪዉ፣ ወለኔዉ፣ ወርጂዉ፣ .. በሙሉ በጀበርቲ ማዕቀፍ ዉስጥ ከመሆኑ አንጻር ሁላችንንም ማንነታችንን እንደጠበቅን በጀበርቲ ሕብረ ብሔር ዉሥጥ ጠንካራ ትስስር ለመፈጠር እንደሚሰሩ ገልጸዋል፡፡ ከአርባ ምንጭ ዩኒቨርሲቲ የተገኙት ሌላ ስማቸዉን ሳልይዛዉ የቀረሁት ዶ/ርም እንዲሁ ተመሳሳይ ነገሮችን በማስቀመጥ ይህ እንደመነሻ የተያዘዉ ጥናታዊ ጽሁፍ የተለያዩ፣ ሙሑራኖች አዋቂዎች የዉጪና የሀገር ዉስጥ ባለሙያዎችን አቅፎ መጠንከር እና መጎልበት እንዳለበት አስገንዝበዋል፡፡ 

በመጨረሻም ሰዉን ያላመሰገነ አላህንም በማለት መላዉ ተሳታፊ ለጥናት አቅራቢዎቹ፣ ለመድረክ አዘጋጆቹ እና ይህ ክስተት እንዲፈጠር ለሰሩ በሙሉ ተመስግነዉ በሸሕ አሕመደል ኩረማ የመዝጊያ ዱዓ ፕሮራሙ ተጠናቋል፡፡ 

#በእለቱ_ካስደሰቱኝ_ነገራቶች፣ ኤርትራዊያኖቹን በማግኘቴና የኤሜል እና የስልክ ልዉዉጥ በማድረጌ፣ በፌስቡክ የማዉቃቸዉ ወንድሞችን በማግኘቴ እና በጣም የማከብረዉና የምወደዉን የታሪክ አባት ሙሐመድ አቡበክርን በአካል ማየቴ እና ሸህአሕመደል ኩረማ እቅፍ አድርጌያቸዉ በመሳሜ የሆነ ደስስ የሚል ስሜት ተሰምቶኛል፡፡ 
:
ሕዳር 23፣ ዕለተ እሁድ በአዳማ ከተማ በ Ahmed Adem ተጻፈ..

ርኽክብ ኤርትራውያን ኣብ ፈረንሳ – ንኽጥመና ንዛተ

ብዕለት 06/01/2019 ኣብ ከተማ Angers, France ዝተኻየደ ሓፈሻዊ ርክብ ንዘተ ምስ ኤርትራውያን ተቐማጦ ፈረንሳ

ኣብቲ ዝተኻየደ ርኽክብ 7 ዝኣባላታ ሓይሊ ዕማም ን6 ወርሒ ዝግበር ንጥፈታት ክትመርሕ ተመሪጻ።

Part I

Part II

Part III

“ጅሃድ” ተራ ቃል ኣይኮነን

ኣብ ኤርትራ ጅሃድ ዝብል ቃል ክልመድን መስቀላውያን ዝብል ቃል ድማ ከም ምልክት ጽልእን ክቑጽር ዝግበር ጎስጓስ ክሕሰበሉ ይግባእ